10-K
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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

ANNUAL REPORT

Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

For the Fiscal Year Ended

March 31, 2024

Commission File No. 1-12984

EAGLE MATERIALS INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware (State of Incorporation)

75-2520779 (I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

5960 Berkshire Lane, Suite 900, Dallas, Texas 75225 (Address of principal executive offices)

(214) 432-2000 (Registrant’s telephone number)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class

 

Trading

Symbol(s)

 

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock (par value $.01 per share)

 

EXP

 

New York Stock Exchange

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes NO

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. YES No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes NO

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit such files). Yes NO

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or emerging growth company. See definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer Smaller reporting company

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). YES NO

The aggregate market value of the voting stock held by nonaffiliates of the Company at September 30, 2023 (the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter) was approximately $5.7 billion.

As of May 17, 2024, the number of outstanding shares of common stock was:

Class

 

Outstanding Shares

Common Stock, $.01 Par Value

 

33,915,345

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Stockholders of Eagle Materials Inc. to be held on August 1, 2024 are incorporated by reference in Part III of this Report.

 

 


 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

 

 

PAGE

 

 

 

PART I

 

 

 

 

 

Item 1.

 

Business

 

1

 

 

Overview

 

1

 

 

Fiscal 2024 Highlights

 

4

 

 

Human Capital

 

5

 

 

Industry Segment Information

 

6

 

 

Where You Can Find More Information

 

25

Item 1A.

 

Risk Factors

 

26

Item 1B.

 

Unresolved Staff Comments

 

41

Item 1C.

 

Cybersecurity

 

41

Item 2.

 

Properties

 

43

Item 3.

 

Legal Proceedings

 

44

Item 4.

 

Mine Safety Disclosures

 

44

 

 

 

PART II

 

 

 

 

 

Item 5.

 

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters, and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

45

Item 6.

 

Selected Financial Data

 

47

Item 7.

 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

47

Item 7A.

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

63

Item 8.

 

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

 

64

Item 9.

 

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

 

99

Item 9A.

 

Controls and Procedures

 

99

Item 9B.

 

Other Information

 

101

Item 9C.

 

Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions That Prevent Inspections

 

101

 

 

 

PART III

 

 

 

 

 

Item 10.

 

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

 

102

Item 11.

 

Executive Compensation

 

102

Item 12.

 

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

 

103

Item 13.

 

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

 

103

Item 14.

 

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

 

103

 

 

 

PART IV

 

 

 

 

 

Item 15.

 

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

 

103

 

 

 

 

 

INDEX TO EXHIBITS

 

104

 

 

 

Item 16.

 

Form 10-K Summary

 

109

 

 

 

SIGNATURES

 

110

 

 


 

PART I

ITEM 1. Business

Overview

Eagle Materials Inc., through its subsidiaries (the Company, which may be referred to as we, our, or us), is a leading manufacturer of heavy construction materials and light building materials in the United States. Our primary products, portland cement and gypsum wallboard, are commodities that are essential in commercial and residential construction; public construction projects to build, expand, and repair roads and highways; and repair and remodel activities. Demand for our products is generally cyclical and seasonal, depending on economic and geographic conditions. We distribute our products throughout most of the United States, except the Northeast, which provides us with regional economic diversification.

The Company was founded in 1963 as a building materials subsidiary of Centex Corporation (Centex). It operated as a public company under the name Centex Construction Products, Inc. from April 19, 1994, to January 30, 2004, at which time Centex completed a tax-free distribution of its shares to its shareholders, and the Company was renamed Eagle Materials Inc. (NYSE: EXP).

Competitive Strengths

We benefit from several competitive strengths that have enabled us to deliver consistently strong operating results and profitable growth.

Strategically located plant network

Our plants are located near both our raw material reserves and customers in high-growth U.S. markets. The proximity to raw materials and customers lowers our transportation costs and carbon footprint. The location of our plants across several high-growth regions within the United States provides geographic diversification, reducing our exposure to individual regional construction cycles, and enabling us to move product between different plants in our network as needed. The integrated nature of our plant network enables us to supply customers from more than one plant when desirable.

Low-cost producer position

Our modern production lines, consistent maintenance programs, access to low-cost raw materials, and our focus on continuous efficiency improvement help us minimize production costs across the network.

Production flexibility

We manage our production lines and work shifts to enable us to operate our plants at high utilization levels generally, while providing optimal production flexibility. Accordingly, we can quickly position for downturns, and quickly and efficiently ramp up when demand rebounds.

Substantial owned raw material reserves and resources

We own at least 25 years of primary raw material reserves (and in many instances, more than 50 years) for each of our cement and wallboard facilities, providing certainty of supply and enhancing our ability to control the cost of our primary raw materials.

 

 

 

1


 

Proven management

Our current management team has significant and valuable expertise, with an average industry experience of more than 20 years, spanning several business cycles. Management’s conservative balance sheet strategy focuses on maintaining prudent levels of leverage and liquidity through the business cycle to protect the balance sheet through downturns and enable us to take advantage of growth opportunities, whether organic or through acquisitions.

Strategy

We rigorously pursue the following overarching strategic objectives that we believe consistently differentiate us from our competitors and contribute to our margin performance and growth: maintaining our position as a low-cost producer in all our markets, maintaining a decentralized operating structure, operating solely in the United States in regionally diverse and attractive markets, achieving profitable growth through both strategic acquisitions and the organic development of our asset network, and operating in a socially and environmentally responsible manner.

Continuously innovate to advance our low-cost position

Our goal and the bedrock of our strategy is to be a low-cost producer in each of the markets in which we compete. We have right-sized capacity to service the markets we participate in, and we focus diligently on reducing costs and making our operations more efficient to manage free cash flow through the economic cycle. Maintaining our low-cost position provides meaningful competitive, financial, and environmental benefits. The products we make are basic necessities, and competition is often based largely on price, with consistent quality and customer service also being important considerations. Thus, being a low-cost producer is a competitive advantage and can lead to higher margins, better returns, and stronger free cash flow generation. Being a low-cost producer is not only key to our commercial success, it also aligns to a significant extent with our commitment to sustainable environmental practices. To maintain our low-cost producer position, we are always innovating our production processes with the aim of using fewer resources to make the same products. We regularly invest in technologies at our facilities to control emissions and to modify the fuels that we burn.

Maintain a decentralized operating structure

The Company operates through a decentralized structure: operations are managed separately, and products are branded and marketed by our individual companies. This regional-market strategy provides several benefits, including increased familiarity with our customers, higher brand recognition, and lower transportation costs, which is a meaningful advantage in the construction materials industry. We view our cement plant system and our wallboard plant system as integrated networks, allowing us to ship products, minimize freight costs, and serve customers from different plants when desirable. The impact of regional construction cycles on our businesses is mitigated to some degree by our geographic diversification and integrated network of plants.

Operate in regionally diverse and attractive markets

Demand for our products depends on construction activity, which tends to correlate with population growth. While the Company’s markets include most of the United States, except the Northeast, approximately 65% of our total revenue is generated in ten states: Colorado, Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, Ohio, Oklahoma, and Texas. Population growth is a major driver of construction products and building materials demand. The population in these ten states is expected to

 

 

2


 

increase approximately 11% between the 2020 census and 2050, compared with 7% for the United States as a whole, according to the latest update in February 2024 by Moody’s Analytics.

Achieve profitable growth through acquisition and organic development

We seek to grow the Company through acquisitions and the organic development of our asset network. Since 2012, we have invested approximately $2.4 billion to expand the Heavy Materials sector. These investments have more than doubled our U.S. cement capacity.

This growth has been achieved mainly through acquisitions, which have expanded our geographic footprint, resulting in a contiguous and integrated cement system from northern California to western Pennsylvania and south to Texas. We have completed additional bolt-on acquisitions, which also contribute to our expanded geographic footprint.

The Company will continue to proactively pursue acquisition opportunities. Our free cash flow and balance sheet strength enable us to consider acquisitions and organic growth opportunities that align with our stringent return-on-investment objectives.

Operate in a socially and environmentally responsible manner

We aim to conduct all our operations in a way that enhances the returns and the sustainability of our business, minimizes negative environmental effects, and maximizes positive social impact. We have defined our environmental and social responsibility priorities and developed a roadmap for pursuing them. Our initiatives encompass land use, water, emissions, the reduction of the carbon impacts of our products, human resources, and governance practices, which are all areas we view as essential to our success.

Management is responsible for implementing these initiatives, and our Board of Directors, or Board, is committed to effective oversight of sustainability matters and ensuring progress across our sustainability initiatives. In particular, pursuant to its charter, the Board's Corporate Governance, Nominating and Sustainability Committee has formal responsibility for leading the Board's oversight of these matters in coordination with management and other Board committees as appropriate. Management submits quarterly progress reports to the Board, and environmental, social and governance (ESG) is a topic of discussion at every quarterly Board meeting. Compensation for key executives is linked, in part, to the achievement of specific ESG goals.

Capital Allocation Priorities

Our capital allocation priorities are intended to enhance shareholder value and are as follows: 1. investing in growth opportunities that meet our strict financial return standards and are consistent with our strategic focus; 2. making operating capital investments to maintain and strengthen our low-cost producer position; and 3. returning excess cash to shareholders through our share repurchase program and dividends. In the past five years, we have invested $912.9 million in acquisitions, $485.9 million in organic capital expenditures, and approximately $1.8 billion in share repurchases and dividends. Since becoming a public company in 1994, our share count is down nearly 51%, and we have returned approximately $3.6 billion to our shareholders through a combination of share repurchases and dividends.

 

 

 

3


 

FISCAL 2024 EVENTS

Financial Highlights

Fiscal 2024 was a strong year for the Company, with increased earnings in both our Cement and Gypsum Wallboard segments. Financial highlights for fiscal 2024 compared with fiscal 2023 include:

Achieved record Revenue of $2.3 billion, up 5%.
Increased Net Earnings by 3% to $477.6 million.
Expanded gross profit margin by 50 basis points to 30.3%.
Increased diluted earnings per share by 9% to $13.61.
Repurchased approximately 1.9 million shares of our stock for $343.3 million.

Strategic Highlights

During fiscal 2024, we executed several strategic actions that expanded our integrated plant network and strengthened our low-cost position. Strategic highlights for fiscal 2024 include the following:

Start-up of Aggregates in Kentucky

In April 2023, we assumed operation of our quarry in Battletown, Kentucky (Battletown Materials). Our Battletown quarry was primarily used to supply our Kosmos Cement plant with limestone; however, beginning in April 2023, we started selling a portion of the mined materials as aggregates. Battletown Materials is included in our Heavy Materials sector, in the Concrete and Aggregates business segment, in fiscal 2024.

Cement Import Terminal Acquisition

On May 3, 2023, we acquired a cement import distribution terminal located in Stockton, California (the Stockton Terminal Acquisition), which expanded our presence in the northern California market and strategically supplements our Northern Nevada manufacturing facility. This terminal is included in our Heavy Materials sector in the Cement segment.

See Footnote (B) to the Audited Consolidated Financial Statements for more information regarding the Stockton Terminal Acquisition.

In addition to the integration of the Kentucky aggregates business and acquisition of the Stockton Cement import terminal, we initiated the following organic growth investments that will get underway in fiscal 2025.

Slag-Cement Facility

We recently announced the planned start-up of a slag-cement facility in the summer of 2024 in Houston, Texas which will expand our cementitious product manufacturing capacity by 500,000 tons to meet increasing demand in the fast-growing Texas market. The slag-cement facility will be operated through our Joint Venture, which is 50% owned by us, and 50% owned by HM Southeast Cement LLC, a subsidiary of Heidelberg Materials (the Joint Venture).

Expansion and Modernization of our Cement Facility in Wyoming

We are investing approximately $430.0 million to modernize and expand our Mountain Cement plant in Wyoming and related distribution facilities, which is expected to add 400,000 tons of production, lower the plant's manufacturing costs by approximately 25%, and reduce the carbon intensity of this facility. This facility provides cement to several markets, including the growing Northern Colorado area, Nebraska, Utah, and Wyoming. Planning for the project has been completed, all primary regulatory approvals have

 

 

4


 

been received, and construction is expected to begin immediately with startup scheduled for the second half of calendar 2026.

SUSTAINABILITY HIGHLIGHTS

We have made meaningful progress on several of our environmental, social, and governance priorities, including reducing our carbon intensity, maintaining industry-leading safety records, and linking a significant portion of executive compensation to sustainability-related targets. Notable achievements for fiscal 2024 include the following:

Increased production and sale of blended cement products, including portland limestone cement, to 75% of our total manufactured product sales in fiscal 2024, advancing our efforts to reduce the carbon intensity of our cement.
Entered into exclusive agreements with Terra CO2, a producer of a scalable low-carbon supplementary cementitious material (SCM) for the potential deployment of multiple eco-friendly, low-carbon cementitious commercial-scale plants that would service three different geographic areas, including the Greater Denver market. The agreements grant us the exclusive right to build and operate plants that produce SCM in each geographic area. When developed and fully scaled, each plant would have the potential to produce approximately 240,000 tons per year of SCM.
Committed to increase the use of alternative fuels for our combustion process at three of our cement facilities.
Reduced water consumption by 23%.
Maintained Total Recordable Incident Rate (TRIR) and Lost Time Incident Rate below industry averages for all of our businesses.
Incorporated new disclosures in our Sustainability Report, including detailed data around Scope 1 and Scope 2 emissions, began alignment with Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (SASB) and Task Force on Climate-Related Financial Disclosures (TCFD) reporting frameworks, and explanations of our enhanced governance policies.
Linked over 50% of our Chief Executive Officer's fiscal 2024 compensation directly to the advancement of the Company's ESG priorities.

Our latest Sustainability Report provides more information related to our roadmap, targets, and progress in improving our efficiency and long-term sustainability of our resources, ensuring the safety of our employees (see also Human Capital below), protecting human rights, and delivering value to our shareholders and society. The above reference to our Sustainability Report does not mean that such report is incorporated by reference herein.

HUMAN CAPITAL

As of March 31, 2024, the Company had approximately 2,500 employees, of which approximately 700 are salaried and approximately 1,800 are hourly. Approximately 700 of the hourly employees are employed under collective bargaining agreements and various supplemental agreements with local unions.

Recruiting, developing, and retaining qualified employees is essential to implement our strategy and maintain our low-cost position. The health and safety of our employees is the highest priority of management. We have comprehensive safety and wellness processes and policies, and all of our employees are provided with the training necessary to safely and effectively perform their responsibilities.

 

 

5


 

In all our businesses we have implemented initiatives to improve safety in the workplace. We hold an annual safety conference during which we review our safety performance, assess the effectiveness of our programs, and determine improvement actions. Specific areas of review include training programs; best practices; and leading indicators, such as near-miss reporting and root cause analysis of all lost-time injuries. We also seek the assistance of outside parties in identifying potential safety trends and ways to mitigate identified risks.

Management reviews a variety of safety metrics, including leading and lagging indicators, and monthly updates are provided to corporate management by the business units throughout the year. During fiscal 2024, all of our business segments recorded lower TRIR averages than the applicable industry average. We believe that these results can be attributed to the diligent focus on the proactive safety initiatives described above.

Industry Segment Information

Our business is organized into two sectors: Heavy Materials, which includes the Cement and Concrete and Aggregates segments; and Light Materials, which includes the Gypsum Wallboard and Recycled Paperboard segments. The primary end market for our Cement and Concrete and Aggregates segments is infrastructure. The primary end market for our Gypsum Wallboard and Recycled Paperboard segments is residential construction.

For information about the financial results of our business segments, including revenue, average net sales prices, sales volume, and operating earnings, please see Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

Heavy Materials

Our Heavy Materials sector provides cement and concrete and aggregates for use in infrastructure, commercial, and residential construction. This sector comprises the Cement and Concrete and Aggregates segments. Demand has been strong for these construction products over the last several years. In calendar 2023, cement consumption in the United States, as estimated by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), was approximately 121.2 million short tons, which was slightly lower than calendar 2022 consumption levels. Imported cement consumption represented 22% of total sales in calendar 2023, compared with 21% in calendar 2022.

Cement

Cement is the basic binding agent for concrete, a primary construction material. The principal sources of demand for cement are public infrastructure, commercial construction, and residential construction, with public infrastructure accounting for nearly 50% of cement demand. Because of its low value-to-weight ratio, the relative cost of transporting cement on land is high and limits the geographic area in which each producer can market its products profitably. Management believes shipments of cement by truck are generally limited to a 150-mile radius from each plant, with the shipping radius increasing to up to 300 miles by rail, and further by barge. Therefore, the U.S. cement industry comprises numerous regional markets rather than a single national market. Cement consumption is affected by the time of year and prevalent weather conditions. Cement sales are generally greatest from spring through the middle of autumn.

 

 

 

6


 

The manufacturing process for portland cement primarily involves four main steps, as shown in the graphic below:

https://cdn.kscope.io/0baa0e6f3a12651565dffbf3daa2bdcc-img31364689_0.jpg 

We also produce and market other cementitious products, including slag cement and fly ash. Slag granules are obtained from a steel company and ground in our grinding facility. Slag is used in concrete mix designs to improve the durability of concrete and reduce future maintenance costs. Fly ash is a by-product of coal-fired power plants and acts as an extender of cement in concrete.

Limestone Resources and Reserves

We mine primarily limestone at our quarry operations serving each of our cement plants. Mining at all of our quarries is done by company personnel. The limestone mined at our quarries is then converted to cement, as outlined above. Each of our cement plants has its own dedicated limestone quarries, all of which have adequate access to highways and/or waterways. All of our mines, with the exception of one, are surface mines, which are mined using open pit techniques. We have one underground mine serving our plant in Sugar Creek, Missouri. All of our limestone reserves are located on properties that are in the production stage.

Mineral resources are defined as a concentration or occurrence of material of economic interest in or on the earth's crust in such form, grade or quality, and quantity that there are reasonable prospects for its economic extraction. The amount of resources is a reasonable estimate, taking into account such factors as grade, location, and mining dimensions, while also considering the economic cost of extraction. Mineral resources are classified into three categories, discussed below in decreasing level of confidence. Measured mineral resources are based on conclusive geological evidence and sampling, meaning that evidence is sufficient to test and confirm geological and grade or quality continuity. After applying modifying factors (as noted below in the discussion of mineral reserves), measured resources may be converted to either proven or probable reserves. Indicated resources are based on adequate geological evidence and sampling, meaning that evidence is sufficient to establish geological and grade or quality continuity with reasonable certainty. After applying modifying factors, indicated resources may be converted to probable reserves. Inferred resources are based on limited geological evidence and sampling, meaning that evidence is sufficient only to establish that geological and grade or quality continuity is more likely than not. Inferred resources may not be converted to reserves.

Mineral reserves are defined as an estimate of tonnage and grade or quality of indicated and measured mineral resources that, in the opinion of a qualified person (QP), can be the basis of an economically viable project. More specifically, it is the economically mineable part of a measured or indicated mineral resource, which includes diluting materials and allowances for losses that may occur when the material is mined or extracted. Mineral reserves are classified into two categories, discussed below in decreasing level of confidence. Proven mineral reserves are the economically mineable part of a measured mineral resource and only result from conversion of a measured mineral resource. Probable mineral reserves are the economically mineable part of an indicated and, in some cases, a measured mineral resource.

 

 

 

7


 

As of March 31, 2024, we had 305.0 million tons of proven and probable limestone reserves, and 683.5 million tons of measured and indicated limestone resources, exclusive of limestone reserves. Approximately 85% of our total reserves are owned, and the remainder are leased. The point of reference for resources, other than the underground properties associated with the Sugar Creek location, is reported on an in situ basis. Sugar Creek underground resources are reported on a recoverable basis. The point of reference for reserves other than the Louisville and Buda locations are reported on a recoverable or "run-of-mine" basis. Louisville and Buda are reported on an in situ basis. We do not consider any of our individual quarries to be material for disclosure purposes. All of our individual locations have at least 25 years of reserves, with most of our locations having in excess of 50 years. We obtained technical reports from a third-party QP for each of our locations during fiscal 2022, except LaSalle, Illinois, and Tulsa, Oklahoma, which were as of January 31, 2023 and March 31, 2024, respectively. The other locations were not updated in fiscal years 2023 or 2024, because we did not add any new properties and did not do any additional exploration on sites during these fiscal years. Additionally, the selling price did not materially change, which further supports no material change on the estimated resource and reserve amounts calculated in fiscal 2022. The total reserves for fiscal 2024 for all locations were calculated by taking the amount of reserves from the latest technical reports for each location and adjusting them for tons mined since the date of the technical report. These technical reports obtained in fiscal 2022 (fiscal 2023 for LaSalle, Illinois, and fiscal 2024 for Tulsa, Oklahoma) were prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Modernization of Property Disclosures for Mining Registrants set forth in subpart 1300 of Regulation S-K.

Our total measured and indicated limestone resources were 673.4 million tons at March 31, 2024, compared with 683.4 million tons at March 31, 2023. The decrease in measured and indicated limestone reserves was due to updating our mining plan at our Tulsa, Oklahoma quarry. Our total proven and probable reserves were 308.2 million tons at March 31, 2024, compared with 312.8 million tons at March 31, 2023. The decline was due to depletion during fiscal 2024.

Below is a summary of our limestone resources, exclusive of limestone reserves, serving each of our cement plants at March 31, 2024:

 

 

Limestone Resources (1)

 

 

(tons in thousands)

 

Location

Measured

 

Indicated

 

Total Measured & Indicated

 

Inferred

 

Buda, Texas (2)

 

51,840

 

 

11,300

 

 

63,140

 

 

1,000

 

LaSalle, Illinois

 

19,350

 

 

5,700

 

 

25,050

 

 

50

 

Sugar Creek, Missouri

 

67,900

 

 

66,000

 

 

133,900

 

 

32,300

 

Laramie, Wyoming

 

60,100

 

 

46,900

 

 

107,000

 

 

360,300

 

Tulsa, Oklahoma

 

32,100

 

 

3,520

 

 

35,620

 

 

4,650

 

Fernley, Nevada

 

78,400

 

 

29,800

 

 

108,200

 

 

17,200

 

Louisville, Kentucky

 

67,500

 

 

99,900

 

 

167,400

 

 

119,200

 

Fairborn, Ohio

 

13,880

 

 

19,200

 

 

33,080

 

 

1,700

 

 

 

391,070

 

 

282,320

 

 

673,390

 

 

536,400

 

(1) Measured, Indicated, and Inferred resources are based on an initial assessment using average selling price assumptions ranging from $13.00 to $18.00 per ton depending on location and market.

(2) Reflects the Company's 50% ownership interest.

 

 

 

8


 

Below is a summary of our limestone reserves serving each of our cement plants at March 31, 2024:

 

 

Limestone Reserves (1)

 

 

(tons in thousands)

 

Location

Proven

 

Probable

 

Total Proven & Probable

 

Buda, Texas (2)

 

28,100

 

 

10,000

 

 

38,100

 

LaSalle, Illinois

 

13,800

 

 

4,450

 

 

18,250

 

Sugar Creek, Missouri

 

22,500

 

 

7,660

 

 

30,160

 

Laramie, Wyoming

 

37,350

 

 

25,400

 

 

62,750

 

Tulsa, Oklahoma

 

35,000

 

 

290

 

 

35,290

 

Fernley, Nevada

 

17,380

 

 

6,500

 

 

23,880

 

Louisville, Kentucky

 

25,410

 

 

49,850

 

 

75,260

 

Fairborn, Ohio

 

24,545

 

 

 

 

24,545

 

 

 

204,085

 

 

104,150

 

 

308,235

 

(1) The economic viability of our reserves was determined using average limestone prices ranging from $13.00 to $18.00 per ton, depending on location and market.

(2) Reflects the Company's 50% ownership interest.

Below is a summary of the annual production volumes from our cement quarries for each of the following fiscal years:

 

 

Tons Mined

 

 

(tons in thousands)

 

Location

2024

 

2023

 

2022

 

Buda, Texas (1)

 

800

 

 

730

 

 

800

 

LaSalle, Illinois

 

1,180

 

 

1,265

 

 

980

 

Sugar Creek, Missouri

 

820

 

 

1,050

 

 

1,130

 

Laramie, Wyoming

 

915

 

 

1,000

 

 

1,140

 

Tulsa, Oklahoma

 

885

 

 

880

 

 

890

 

Fernley, Nevada

 

610

 

 

570

 

 

500

 

Louisville, Kentucky

 

1,965

 

 

2,185

 

 

2,100

 

Fairborn, Ohio

 

870

 

 

970

 

 

920

 

 

 

8,045

 

 

8,650

 

 

8,460

 

(1) Reflects the Company's 50% ownership interest.

All of our quarries are close to our operating facilities. See Item 2. Properties for the map showing the locations of all operating facilities for the Company.

Internal Controls

We have compiled reserve and resource estimates with the assistance of a third-party QP. In general, the procedure for developing these estimates was a collaboration between site personnel and the QP for each individual site. Past exploration data was field verified and quality was verified by reviewing on-site lab certification or third-party testing. Third-party resource modeling was developed using verified past exploration data and field observations. Where applicable, site-specific ore density, recovery, and loss parameters were used to calculate reserves. Property ownership, permit status, and lease evaluations were performed by the third-party QP to evaluate the legal right to mine. When evaluating economic viability, past income statements and operating costs were reviewed, as well as future operating and capital cost estimates. Commodity pricing was either taken from published USGS reports or from reasonable expected pricing given site location and haulage rates.

 

 

 

 

9


 

While the mineral reserve and resource classification categories (proven and probable) identify relative confidence of reserve estimates, there is inherent risk associated with such estimates. We base estimates on information known at the time of determination and regularly reevaluate reserves whenever new information indicates a material change in reserves at one of our sites.

Cement Plants

We operate eight modern cement plants (one of which is operated through a joint venture), and one slag grinding facility. Our clinker capacity is approximately 6.7 million tons, which is approximately 6% of total U.S. clinker capacity. Clinker is the intermediary product before it is ground into cement powder. All of our cement plants use dry-process technology, and approximately 80% of our clinker capacity is produced from preheater or preheater/pre-calciner kilns, which are generally more energy-efficient kiln types. In addition to production facilities, we also operate over 30 cement storage and distribution terminals, including the Stockton, California terminal purchased on May 3, 2023.

Our cement companies focus on the U.S. heartland and operate as an integrated network selling product mainly in Colorado, Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky, Indiana, Iowa, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, Ohio, Oklahoma, Tennessee, and Texas. Our Joint Venture (as defined below) includes a minority interest in an import terminal in Houston, Texas, from which we can purchase up to 495,000 short tons of cement annually. Our slag facility is located near Chicago, Illinois and has 500,000 tons annual grinding capacity.

The following table sets forth information regarding our cement plants at March 31, 2024 (tons are in thousands of short tons):

 

Plant Location

 

Rated Annual
Clinker
Capacity
(1)

 

Annual
Grinding
Capacity

 

Manufacturing
Process

 

Number
of Kilns

 

Kiln
Dedication
Date

Buda, TX (2)

 

 

1,300

 

 

1,435

 

Dry – 4 Stage Preheater/Pre-calciner

 

1

 

1983

LaSalle, IL

 

 

1,000

 

 

1,100

 

Dry – 5 Stage Preheater/Pre-calciner

 

1

 

2006

Sugar Creek, MO

 

 

1,000

 

 

1,300

 

Dry – 5 Stage Preheater/Pre-calciner

 

1

 

2002

Laramie, WY

 

 

650

 

 

800

 

Dry – 2 Stage Preheater

 

1

 

1988

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dry – Long Dry Kiln

 

1

 

1996

Tulsa, OK

 

 

600

 

 

900

 

Dry – Long Dry Kiln

 

1

 

1961

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dry  Long Dry Kiln

 

1

 

1964

Fernley, NV

 

 

500

 

 

550

 

Dry – Long Dry Kiln

 

1

 

1964

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dry – 1 Stage Preheater

 

1

 

1969

Louisville, KY

 

 

1,550

 

 

1,800

 

Dry - 4 Stage Preheater/Pre-calciner

 

1

 

1999

Fairborn, OH

 

 

730

 

 

980

 

Dry – 4 Stage Preheater

 

1

 

1974

Total-Gross

 

 

7,330

 

 

8,865

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total-Net (3)

 

 

6,680

 

 

8,150

 

 

 

 

 

 

(1) One short ton equals 2,000 pounds.

(2) The amount shown represents 100% of plant capacity. This plant is owned by the Joint Venture in which the Company has a 50% interest.

(3) Net of partner’s 50% interest in the Buda, Texas plant.

All of our cement subsidiaries are wholly owned except the Buda, Texas plant, which is owned by Texas Lehigh Cement Company LP, a limited partnership joint venture owned 50% by us, and 50% by HM Southeast Cement LLC, a subsidiary of Heidelberg Materials (our Joint Venture Partner).

On May 1, 2024, the Company and our Joint Venture Partner entered into a put option agreement (Put Option Agreement) that provides for the grant of reciprocal put options by the parties with respect to their 50% partnership interests in the Joint Venture. If the Company or our Joint Venture Partner exercises its put option under the Put Option Agreement, the other party is required to purchase the 50% partnership interest held by the exercising party for approximately $550.0 million, subject to certain customary adjustments. The put option can only be exercised in the event of a triggering event, which is defined as

 

 

10


 

the entry by the exercising party into a binding and effective outside purchase agreement. An outside purchase agreement is a definitive agreement for the purchase of assets or operations to be used in the production or sale of grey cement products or slag in the Joint Venture market area for total consideration equal to or greater than $1 billion. The Put Option Agreement is effective for 15 months, and expires on August 1, 2025.

Our cement production, including our 50% share of the cement Joint Venture production, totaled 6.6 million short tons and 6.7 million short tons for fiscal 2024 and fiscal 2023, respectively. Total net Cement sales, including our 50% share of cement sales from the Joint Venture, were 7.3 million short tons and 7.1 million short tons in fiscal 2024 and fiscal 2023, respectively. Total net Cement sales exceed production primarily because of imports through the Houston and Stockton import terminals.

Demand, Sales, and Distribution

The principal sources of demand for cement and slag are public infrastructure, private nonresidential construction, and residential construction, with public infrastructure comprising nearly 50% of total demand. Cement consumption in the U.S. decreased slightly during calendar 2023, and the Portland Cement Association forecasts cement consumption will increase by approximately 1% in calendar 2024. Demand for cement is seasonal, particularly in northern states where inclement winter weather often affects construction activity. Cement sales are generally greatest from spring through the middle of autumn. Demand for slag has increased as the availability of fly ash has decreased due to the reduction in the use of coal to generate power.

Because of cement’s low value-to-weight ratio, the relative cost of transporting cement on land is high and limits the geographic area in which each company can profitably market its products. The low value-to-weight ratio generally limits shipments by truck to a 150-mile radius from each plant, up to 300 miles by rail, and further by barge. Consequently, the U.S. cement industry is made up of regional markets rather than a single national selling market. No single cement company has a distribution of plants extensive enough to serve all geographic areas, so profitability is sensitive to shifts in the balance between regional supply and demand.

Environmental and zoning regulations have made it increasingly difficult for the U.S. cement industry to expand existing facilities and to build new cement facilities. Although we cannot predict which policies will be adopted in the future by federal, state, and local governmental bodies, we anticipate that future restrictions will likely continue to make zoning and permitting of new capacity additions difficult. This could potentially enhance the value of our existing facilities. Furthermore, cost-efficient alternatives to cement are currently limited, and the availability of some alternatives is diminishing. For example, the availability of fly ash, a cement replacement, has decreased because of the retirement of coal-fired power plants and the conversion of power plants from coal to natural gas and other forms of energy.

The difficulty in adding cement capacity, coupled with limited alternatives, leads to high U.S. cement manufacturing utilization rates, as well as the need for imported cement when demand levels are high. Cement imports into the U.S. occur mostly to supplement domestic cement production or to supply a particular region. Cement is typically imported into deep water ports along the coast or on the Great Lakes or transported on the Mississippi River system near major population centers. Our position in the U.S. heartland, away from most import terminals, provides a degree of insulation from coastal imports, given the expense of transporting cement from deep water ports into the heartland regions. This geographic position further enhances the value of our plant network.

 

 

 

11


 

The USGS estimates that imports represented approximately 22% of cement used in the U.S. during calendar 2023, compared with 21% in calendar 2022. Based on the historical distribution of cement into the market, we believe that no less than approximately 5% to 10% of the total U.S. consumption will consistently be served by imported cement.

The following table sets forth information regarding the geographic areas served by each of our cement and slag plants and the location of our distribution terminals in each area. We have over 30 cement storage and distribution terminals that are strategically located to extend the sales areas of our plants.

 

Plant Location

 

Type of Plant

 

Operating Company Name

 

Principal Geographic Areas

 

Distribution Terminals (1)

Buda, Texas

 

Cement

 

Texas Lehigh Cement Company LP (the Joint Venture)

 

Texas and western
Louisiana

 

Corpus Christi, Texas; Houston, Texas;
Roanoke (Fort Worth), Texas; Waco,
Texas; Houston Cement Company
(Joint Venture), Houston, Texas

LaSalle, Illinois

 

Cement

 

Illinois Cement Company

 

Illinois, Michigan, and
southern Wisconsin

 

Hartland, Wisconsin; South Beloit, Illinois;
Ottawa, Illinois

Sugar Creek, Missouri

 

Cement

 

Central Plains Cement Company

 

Western Missouri, eastern
Kansas, eastern Nebraska,
and Iowa

 

Sugar Creek, Missouri; Wichita, Kansas;
Omaha, Nebraska; Altoona, Iowa

Tulsa, Oklahoma

 

Cement

 

Central Plains Cement Company

 

Oklahoma, western
Arkansas, and southern
Missouri

 

Oklahoma City, Oklahoma;
Springfield, Missouri

Laramie, Wyoming

 

Cement

 

Mountain Cement Company

 

Wyoming, Utah, Colorado,
and western Nebraska

 

Salt Lake City, Utah; Denver, Colorado;
North Platte, Nebraska

Fernley, Nevada

 

Cement

 

Nevada Cement Company

 

Northern Nevada and
northern California

 

Sacramento, California; Stockton, California (2)
Redwood City, California
(2)

Louisville, Kentucky

 

Cement

 

Kosmos Cement Company

 

Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana, West Virginia, eastern Illinois, western Pennsylvania, and northern Tennessee

 

Indianapolis, Indiana; Ceredo, West Virginia;
Lexington, Kentucky
(2); Cincinnati, Ohio;
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Nashville, Tennessee;
Charleston, West Virginia;
Mount Vernon, Indiana
(2)

Fairborn, Ohio

 

Cement

 

Fairborn Cement Company

 

Ohio, eastern Indiana, and
northern Kentucky

 

Columbus, Ohio

Chicago, Illinois

 

Slag

 

Skyway Cement Company

 

Illinois, Pennsylvania,
Iowa, Ohio, Minnesota,
Missouri, and Kansas

 

Kansas City, Missouri; Etna, Pennsylvania;

(1) Each distribution terminal listed in this table is capable of handling cement and/or slag.

(2) These facilities are being leased.

The terminal in Lexington, Kentucky was being leased under an initial term of five years, and we are currently operating the terminal on a year-to-year lease. The terminal in Mt. Vernon, Indiana is leased through fiscal 2031, and contains options that will allow the renewal of this lease for an additional twenty years. The terminal in Redwood City, California is being leased under a month-to-month lease, and the terminal in Stockton, California is leased through calendar 2035.

Cement and slag are distributed directly to our customers mostly through customer pickups, and also by common carriers from our plants or distribution terminals. We transport cement, slag, and fly ash by truck, barge, and rail to our storage and distribution terminals.

No single customer accounted for more than 10% of our Cement segment sales during fiscal 2024. We do not typically enter into long-term cement sales contracts or have a significant level of order backlog.

 

 

 

12


 

Raw Materials and Fuel Supplies

The principal raw material used in the production of portland cement is calcium carbonate in the form of limestone. Limestone is obtained mainly through mining and extraction operations conducted at mines and quarries that we own or lease, and that are located in close proximity to our plants. We believe the estimated recoverable limestone reserves and resources we own or lease will permit each of our plants to operate at our present production capacity for at least 25 years. We are actively seeking to upgrade our extensive high-quality resource base at existing properties to reserves, or acquire additional limestone reserves close to our plants, and believe we will be able to acquire more reserves in the future. All properties have additional resources that have potential with further engineering and evaluation to be upgraded to reserves. Other raw materials used in significantly smaller quantities than limestone are sand, clay, iron ore, and gypsum. These materials are readily available and can be obtained from reserves owned or leased by the Company, or purchased from outside suppliers.

We utilize coal, petroleum coke, natural gas, and alternative fuels to fuel our cement plants. The cost of fuel increased throughout fiscal 2024, compared with fiscal 2023, due primarily to higher costs for solid fuels, such as coal and petroleum coke. The increase included the cost of the solid fuels and delivery costs. We expect the cost of fuel to stabilize in fiscal 2025. In keeping with our commitment to sustainability and cost management, we continue to expand the use of alternative fuels at our cement facilities.

We have an agreement with a steel manufacturer to supply granules necessary for grinding slag. This agreement requires us to purchase up to 550,000 tons of granules, which meet certain specifications, made available by the steel manufacturer each year. Electric power is also a major cost component in the manufacturing process for both cement and slag, and we have sought to diminish overall power costs by adopting interruptible power supply agreements at certain locations. These agreements may expose us to some production interruptions during periods of power curtailment. Historically, we have not had many production interruptions under these agreements.

Environmental Matters

Our cement operations are subject to numerous federal, state, and local laws and regulations pertaining to health, safety, and the environment. Some of these laws, such as the federal Clean Air Act (CAA) and the federal Clean Water Act (CWA) (and analogous state laws) impose environmental-permitting requirements and govern the nature and amount of emissions that may be generated when conducting particular operations. Other laws, such as the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) (and analogous state laws) impose obligations to clean up or remediate spills of hazardous materials into the environment. Other laws require us to reclaim certain land upon completion of extraction and mining operations in our quarries. We believe that we have obtained all the material environmental permits that are necessary to conduct our operations. We further believe that we are conducting our operations in substantial compliance with these permits. In addition, none of our manufacturing sites are listed as a CERCLA Superfund site.

The following environmental issues involving the cement manufacturing industry deserve special mention.

Cement Kiln Dust – Our cement operations generate Cement Kiln Dust (CKD) as a byproduct. Because much of this CKD is unreacted raw materials, it is often returned to the production process. Substantially all CKD produced in connection with our ongoing operations is recycled. However, CKD was historically collected and is currently stored on-site at our Nevada, Missouri, Oklahoma and Wyoming cement plants and at a former plant site in Corpus Christi, Texas, which is no longer producing cement. Currently, CKD waste is generally excluded from the definition of hazardous waste under the federal regulations. The

 

 

13


 

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been evaluating the regulatory status of CKD under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) since 2002, and thus far has not changed its approach. If either the EPA or the states decide to reclassify or impose new management standards on this CKD at some point in the future, we could incur additional costs to comply with those requirements with respect to our historically collected CKD. CKD that comes in contact with water might produce a leachate with an alkalinity high enough to be classified as hazardous and might also leach certain hazardous trace metals therein.

Potential Greenhouse Gas Regulation – The potential regulation of our emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs), including carbon dioxide, could affect our cement operations because (1) the cement manufacturing process requires the combustion of large amounts of fuel to generate very high kiln temperatures; and (2) the production of carbon dioxide is a byproduct of the calcination process, whereby carbon dioxide is removed from calcium carbonate to produce calcium oxide. Curbing GHG emissions is a clear priority for the Biden administration, and as part of rejoining the Paris Agreement, President Biden announced that the United States would commit to a 50 to 52 percent reduction from 2005 levels of GHG emissions by 2030 and set the goal of reaching net-zero GHG emissions by 2050. Further, several states have individually implemented or are presently considering measures to reduce emissions of GHGs, primarily through the planned development of GHG inventories or registries, or regional GHG cap and trade programs. It is not possible at this time to predict how any future legislation that may be enacted or final EPA regulations that may be adopted to address GHG emissions would impact our business. However, any imposition of raw materials or production limitations, fuel-use or carbon taxes (such as the EPA’s proposed Waste Emissions Charge on certain methane emissions from certain petroleum and natural gas facilities), or emission limitations or reductions could have a significant impact on the cement manufacturing industry and a material adverse effect on us and our results of operations.

Solid Waste Incineration Regulations – The EPA has promulgated revised regulations for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration (CISWI) units, pursuant to Section 129 of the CAA. The EPA has approved several states’ implementation plans under this rule, and has proposed a federal plan that would apply in states that have not submitted and received approval for a state plan. Compared to the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (PC NESHAP), the CISWI regulations contain requirements across a broader range of pollutants, and the requirement that apply for dioxin/furans for existing and new sources are somewhat more stringent.

Air Quality Standards – The EPA is engaged in an ongoing review and implementation of the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for ozone. The CAA requires the EPA to review, and if necessary, revise the NAAQS every five years. In December 2020, the Trump Administration announced its decision to retain the 2015 ozone NAAQS set by the Obama Administration without change. This December 2020 final action, however, is subject to legal challenge and is currently being reviewed by the EPA.

In addition, in February 2023, the EPA published a final rule disapproving the State Implementation Plans (SIPs) for twenty-one states, which addressed each state’s obligations to eliminate significant contributions to nonattainment, or interference with maintenance, of the 2015 ozone NAAQS in other states (interstate transport requirements). States subject to a SIP Disapproval under this final action relevant to our cement operations include Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, Nevada, Ohio, Oklahoma, and Texas.

In March 2023, the EPA finalized a proposed Federal Implementation Plan (FIP), also known as the "Good Neighbor Plan," which addresses interstate transport obligations for the twenty-one states with disapproved SIPs as well as two additional states that had not submitted any revisions for their SIPs. In January 2024, the EPA added five more states to the FIP. The FIP establishes nitrogen oxide (NOx)

 

 

14


 

emissions limitations beginning in 2026 during the ozone season for kilns used in cement and cement product manufacturing in 20 states, including all the above-listed states. The FIP went into effect on August 4, 2023, but has not been implemented in 12 of the states with disapproved SIPs due to legal challenges.

States subject to the FIP relevant to our cement operations include Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, Nevada, Ohio, Oklahoma, and Texas. Our facilities most directly affected by the disapproval by the EPA of the SIPs and the FIP finalized in March 2023 are our cement plants located in Nevada, Oklahoma and Texas. Various legal challenges have been filed against the EPA’s disapproval of the SIPs for such states, including Nevada, Oklahoma and Texas, which stayed the implementation of the EPA’s FIP in those states. We also filed our own challenges to the disapproval of the SIPs in these three states. In each of these actions, the petitioners have challenged the failure on the part of the EPA to appropriately defer to the applicable state’s analysis and determinations regarding interstate transport obligations. An adverse outcome in these actions could require us to incur significant capital expenditures related to the installation of additional controls and additional operating costs at the affected facilities or, if the installation of controls proves impracticable, to modify or curtail our operations at such facilities, which could have a material adverse effect on their profitability. Multiple parties have filed lawsuits challenging the EPA’s disapproval of the states’ plans as well as the Good Neighbor Plan, but no court has issued a final ruling on the validity of the disapprovals or the FIP. We are unable to predict the likely outcome of the multiple legal challenges to both the state disapprovals and the Good Neighbor Plan at this time.

Further, on February 7, 2024, the EPA announced its final rule to change the NAAQS for fine particle pollution, also known as fine particulate matter (PM2.5) or soot, and related monitoring requirements, last revised in 2012. The final rule lowers the level of the primary (health-based) annual PM2.5 standard from 12 micrograms per cubic meter to 9 micrograms. The EPA retained all other existing PM standards. The final rule has been challenged by various parties and the cases have been consolidated in the United States Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit. The outcome of these legal challenges is unknown at this time. The anticipated impacts of the new PM NAAQS are similar to those for the ozone NAAQS, discussed above, and include a potential increase in our capital expenditures and operating expenses and make permitting more difficult.

Other – We believe that our current procedures and practices in our operations, including those for handling and managing hazardous materials, are consistent with industry standards and are in substantial compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations. Nevertheless, because of the complexity of our operations and the environmental laws to which we are subject, there can be no assurance that past or future operations will not result in violations, remediation costs, or other liabilities or claims. Moreover, we cannot predict what environmental laws will be enacted or adopted in the future or how such future environmental laws or regulations will be administered or interpreted. Compliance with more stringent environmental laws, or stricter interpretation of existing environmental laws, could necessitate significant capital outlays.

In fiscal 2024, we had $4.9 million of capital expenditures related to compliance with environmental regulations applicable to our Cement operations. We anticipate spending $7.5 million during fiscal 2025.

 

 

 

15


 

Concrete and Aggregates

Readymix concrete is a versatile, low-cost building material used in almost all construction. The production of readymix concrete involves mixing cement, sand, gravel or crushed stone, and water to form concrete, which is then sold and distributed to numerous construction contractors. Concrete is produced in batch plants and transported to customers’ job sites in mixer trucks.

The aggregates business consists of mining, extracting, producing, and selling crushed stone, sand, and gravel. Construction aggregates of suitable characteristics are employed in virtually all types of construction, including the production of readymix concrete, flexible base, and asphaltic mixes used in highway construction and maintenance.

Aggregate Resources and Reserves

We generally conduct Aggregate operations near our concrete facilities. Aggregates are obtained principally by mining and extracting from quarries owned or leased by the Company. Mining at all of our quarries is done by company personnel.

Mineral resources and reserves for our aggregate plants consist of both sand and gravel, as well as limestone, and are defined similarly to how these reserves are defined for our Cement business. See the Limestone Resources and Reserves section in the Cement segment discussion for a more detailed description of how we define mineral resources and reserves.

As of March 31, 2024, we had 102.0 million tons of proven and probable aggregate reserves. Approximately 35% of our reserves are owned, with the rest covered under leases expiring between 2040 and 2060. We do not consider any of our individual quarries to be material for disclosure purposes. All of our individual locations, with the exception of the Kansas City area, have at least 25 years of reserves.

Our total measured and indicated aggregates resources were 139.6 million tons at March 31, 2024, compared with 145.3 million tons at March 31, 2023. Our total proven and probable reserves were 102.0 million tons at March 31, 2024, compared with 116.7 million tons at March 31, 2023. The decrease in reserves and resources was due to depletion during fiscal 2024, as well as the expiration of a lease in Northern Nevada that reduced reserves by approximately 15.1 tons.

The following table sets forth certain information regarding our aggregates facilities as well as aggregates resources, exclusive of aggregates reserves, at March 31, 2024:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aggregates Resources (1)

 

 

 

 

 

 

(tons in thousands)

 

Location

 

Types
of Aggregates

Estimated Annual
Production Capacity
(Thousand tons)

 

Measured

 

Indicated

 

Total Measured & Indicated

 

Inferred

 

Central Texas

 

Limestone and Gravel

 

2,500

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

74,700

 

Kansas City Area (2)

 

Limestone

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

25,000

 

Northern Colorado

 

Sand and Gravel

 

1,700

 

 

21,500

 

 

7,135

 

 

28,635

 

 

7,000

 

Northern Kentucky

 

Limestone

 

1,000

 

 

5,440

 

 

58,410

 

 

63,850

 

 

140,820

 

Northern Nevada

 

Sand and Gravel

 

850

 

 

28,500

 

 

18,600

 

 

47,100

 

 

16,300

 

 

 

 

 

6,050

 

 

55,440

 

 

84,145

 

 

139,585

 

 

263,820

 

(1) Aggregates resources are reported on an in situ basis.

(2) The Company currently is not operating its aggregate facility in the Kansas City area.

 

 

 

16


 

The following table sets forth certain information regarding our aggregates reserves at March 31, 2024:

 

 

 

Aggregates Reserves (1)

 

 

 

(tons in thousands)

 

Location

 

Proven

 

Probable

 

Total Proven & Probable

 

Central Texas

 

 

57,680

 

 

 

 

57,680

 

Kansas City Area (2)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Northern Colorado

 

 

200

 

 

11,635

 

 

11,835

 

Northern Nevada

 

 

21,930

 

 

10,570

 

 

32,500

 

 

 

 

79,810

 

 

22,205

 

 

102,015

 

(1) Aggregates reserves are reported on saleable product basis.

(2) The Company is currently not operating its aggregate facility in the Kansas City area.

Below is a summary of the annual production volumes from our aggregates quarries:

 

 

 

Tons Mined

 

 

 

(tons in thousands)

 

Location

 

2024

 

2023

 

2022

 

Central Texas

 

 

1,885

 

 

1,935

 

 

1,815

 

Kansas City Area (1)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Northern Colorado

 

 

1,685

 

 

460

 

 

 

Northern Kentucky

 

 

900

 

 

 

 

 

Northern Nevada

 

 

800

 

 

760

 

 

700

 

 

 

 

5,270

 

 

3,155

 

 

2,515

 

(1) The Company currently is not operating its aggregate facility in the Kansas City area.

The internal controls over our resource and reserve estimates have been compiled in a manner similar to those in our Cement business. See the Internal Controls section in the Cement segment discussion for a more detailed description of our internal controls over resource and reserve estimation.

Our total net Aggregates sales (excluding intercompany tons sold) were 4.1 million tons in fiscal 2024 and 2.9 million tons in fiscal 2023. Total Aggregates production was 5.3 million tons in fiscal 2024 and 4.0 million tons in fiscal 2023. The increase in Aggregates sales and production in fiscal 2024, compared with fiscal 2023, was due to the addition of the Northern Kentucky mine in fiscal 2024. A portion of our total Aggregates production is used internally by our readymix Concrete operations in Texas, northern Colorado, and northern Nevada and by our Cement operations in Northern Kentucky.

Concrete Plants

We produce and distribute readymix concrete from company-owned sites in Central Texas; the greater Kansas City area; northern Colorado; and northern Nevada. The following table sets forth information regarding these operations as of March 31, 2024:

Location

 

Number of Plants

 

Central Texas

 

 

9

 

Kansas City Area

 

 

9

 

Northern Colorado

 

 

4

 

Northern Nevada

 

 

8

 

Total

 

 

30

 

Demand, Sales, and Distribution

Demand for readymix concrete and aggregates largely depends on local levels of construction activity. Construction activity is also subject to weather conditions, the availability of financing at reasonable rates,

 

 

17


 

and overall fluctuations in local economies, and therefore tends to be cyclical. We sell readymix concrete to numerous contractors and other customers in each plant’s marketing area. Our batch plants in Central Texas, the greater Kansas City area, northern Colorado, and northern Nevada are strategically located to serve each marketing area. Concrete is delivered from the batch plants primarily by company-owned trucks. We sell aggregates to building contractors and other customers engaged in a wide variety of construction activities. Aggregates are delivered from our plants by common carriers and customer pickup. No single customer accounted for more than 10% of fiscal 2024 segment revenue.

The concrete and aggregates industry is highly fragmented, with numerous participants operating in each local area. Because the cost of transporting concrete and aggregates is very high relative to product values, producers of concrete and aggregates typically can profitably sell their products only in areas within 50 miles of their production facilities. Barriers to entry in each industry are low, except with respect to environmental permitting requirements for new aggregates production facilities and zoning of land to permit mining and extraction of aggregates.

Raw Materials

We obtain cement and aggregates for our Concrete businesses from primarily related companies, as outlined below:

 

 

 

Percentage of Internally Supplied

 

Location

 

Cement

 

 

Aggregates

 

Central Texas

 

 

40

%

 

 

65

%

Kansas City Area

 

 

100

%

 

 

 

Northern Colorado

 

 

100

%

 

 

100

%

Northern Nevada

 

 

100

%

 

 

95

%

We obtain the balance of our cement and aggregates requirements from multiple outside sources in each of these areas.

We mine and extract limestone, sand, and gravel, the principal raw materials used in the production of aggregates, from quarries owned or leased by us and located near our plants. On average, our aggregate reserves exceed 25 years based on normalized production levels, excluding northern Kentucky. We just began mining aggregates from this site and we anticipate, after doing more drilling and analysis, that we will likely reclassify most of the measured and indicated resources to reserves in the next year or two, at which time we will have over 25 years of reserves for this location.

Cost of materials and diesel fuel are the two biggest expense items for readymix concrete, and they increased by 19% and 11%, respectively, in fiscal 2024 compared with fiscal 2023. We anticipate these costs will continue to increase in fiscal 2025.

Environmental Matters

The concrete and aggregates industry is subject to environmental regulations similar to those governing our Cement operations, which are included in the Environmental Matters section in the Cement segment discussion.

We did not have any capital expenditures related to compliance with environmental regulations applicable to our Concrete and Aggregates operations in fiscal 2024, and we do not anticipate any material spending related to compliance with environmental regulations during fiscal 2025.

 

 

18


 

Light Materials

Our Light Materials sector comprises the Gypsum Wallboard segment, which produces gypsum wallboard used in residential and commercial construction and repair and remodel activities, and the Recycled Paperboard segment, which produces paper primarily used in the manufacture of gypsum wallboard. Operations in this sector are concentrated in the Sun Belt of the United States, which we define as the lower half of the United States, but not California. Population in the Sun Belt is projected to grow approximately 17% between 2020 and 2050, according to the latest update in February 2024 by Moody’s Analytics. Population growth is a key long-term driver of demand for gypsum wallboard and recycled paperboard.

Gypsum Wallboard

 

Gypsum wallboard is used to finish the interior walls and ceilings in residential, commercial, and industrial structures. Our gypsum wallboard products are marketed under the name American Gypsum.

The gypsum wallboard manufacturing process involves four main steps, as shown in the graphic below:

 

https://cdn.kscope.io/0baa0e6f3a12651565dffbf3daa2bdcc-img31364689_1.jpg 

Gypsum Wallboard Plants, Resources, and Reserves

We own and operate five gypsum wallboard plants, outlined in the table below. We anticipate running all our facilities at the level required to meet customer demand, up to maximum capacity. Our gypsum wallboard is distributed in the geographic markets nearest to our production facilities.

Four of our five gypsum wallboard plants are supplied with gypsum from our nearby gypsum quarries, while our wallboard plant in South Carolina is supplied with synthetic gypsum under a long-term supply contract with a third party. We have adequate access to all of our quarries. Mining at all of our quarries is done by company personnel.

Mineral resources and mineral reserves for our Gypsum Wallboard business are defined similarly to how they are defined for our Cement business. See the Limestone Resources and Reserves section in the Cement segment discussion for a more detailed description of how we define mineral resources and reserves.

 

 

 

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As of March 31, 2024, we had 66.6 million tons of proven and probable gypsum reserves, and 151.9 million tons of measured and indicated gypsum resources, exclusive of gypsum reserves. Approximately 45% of our reserves are owned, with the rest leased. We do not consider any of our individual quarries to be material for disclosure purposes. We obtained technical reports from a third-party QP for each of our locations during fiscal 2022 except Gypsum, Colorado, which was as of March 31, 2023. The other locations were not updated during fiscal years 2023 and 2024, because we did not add any new properties, or do any additional exploration on sites during those fiscal years. Additionally, the change in selling price did not materially increase, which further supports no material change on the estimated resource and reserve amounts calculated in fiscal 2022. The total reserves for fiscal 2024 for all locations were calculated by taking the amount of reserves from the latest technical report for each location, and adjusting them for tons mined since the date of the technical report. The technical reports obtained in fiscal 2022 (fiscal 2023 for Gypsum, Colorado) were prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Modernization of Property Disclosures for Mining Registrants set forth in subpart 1300 of Regulation S-K.

Our total measured and indicated gypsum resources were 151.9 million tons at both March 31, 2024, and March 31, 2023. Our total proven and probable reserves were 66.6 million tons at March 31, 2024, compared with 68.5 million tons at March 31, 2023. The 3% decrease in proven and probable reserves was due to gypsum mined during fiscal 2024.

The following table sets forth certain information regarding our gypsum wallboard plants and gypsum resources, exclusive of gypsum reserves, at March 31, 2024:

 

 

 

 

Gypsum Resources (1) (2)

 

 

 

(tons in thousands)

Location

 

Approximate Annual
Gypsum Wallboard
Capacity
 (MMSF) (3)

Measured

Indicated

Total Measured & Indicated

Inferred

Albuquerque, New Mexico

 

425

41,800

16,000

57,800

6,300

Bernalillo, New Mexico (4)

 

550

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

Gypsum, Colorado

 

700

20,740

2,780

23,520

Duke, Oklahoma

 

1,300

27,900

42,700

70,600

59,000

Georgetown, South Carolina (5)

 

900

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

Total

 

3,875

90,440

61,480

151,920

65,300

(1) Gypsum resources are shown on an in situ basis.

(2) Measured, Indicated and Inferred resources are based on an initial assessment using average selling price assumptions ranging from $13.50 to $16.50 per ton, depending on location and market.

(3) Million Square Feet (MMSF) based on anticipated product mix.

(4) The same resources serve both New Mexico plants.

(5) In 2006, we signed a 60-year supply agreement for synthetic gypsum with Santee Cooper that expires in 2068.

 

 

 

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The following table sets forth our gypsum reserves at March 31, 2024:

 

 

 

Gypsum Reserves (1) (2)

 

 

 

(tons in thousands)

 

Location

 

Proven

 

Probable

 

Total Proven & Probable

 

Albuquerque, New Mexico

 

 

19,320

 

 

3,650

 

 

22,970

 

Bernalillo, New Mexico (3)

 

n/a

 

n/a

 

n/a

 

Gypsum, Colorado

 

 

17,085

 

 

2,300

 

 

19,385

 

Duke, Oklahoma

 

 

5,890

 

 

18,350

 

 

24,240

 

Georgetown, South Carolina (4)

 

n/a

 

n/a

 

n/a

 

Total

 

 

42,295

 

 

24,300

 

 

66,595

 

(1) Gypsum reserves are shown on a recoverable basis.

(2) The economic viability of our reserves were determined using average gypsum prices ranging from $13.50 to $16.50 per ton, depending on location and market.

(3) The same reserves serve both New Mexico plants.

(4) In 2006, we signed a 60-year supply agreement for synthetic gypsum with Santee Cooper that expires in 2068.

Below is a summary of the annual production volumes from our gypsum quarries:

 

 

 

Tons Mined Reserves

 

 

 

(tons in thousands)

 

Location

 

2024

 

2023

 

2022

 

Albuquerque, New Mexico

 

 

560

 

 

470

 

 

444

 

Bernalillo, New Mexico (1)

 

n/a

 

n/a

 

n/a

 

Gypsum, Colorado

 

 

615

 

 

595

 

 

496

 

Duke, Oklahoma

 

 

740

 

 

850

 

 

607

 

Total

 

 

1,915

 

 

1,915

 

 

1,547

 

(1) The same reserves serve both New Mexico plants.

The internal controls over our gypsum resource and reserve estimates are similar to those in our Cement business. See the Internal Controls section in the Cement segment discussion for a more detailed description of our internal controls over resource and reserve estimation.

Our Gypsum Wallboard production totaled 3,030 MMSF in fiscal 2024 and 3,123 MMSF in fiscal 2023. Total Gypsum Wallboard sales were 2,965 MMSF in fiscal 2024 and 3,065 MMSF in fiscal 2023.

Demand, Sales, and Distribution

The principal sources of demand for gypsum wallboard are (i) residential construction, (ii) repair and remodel activities, (iii) nonresidential construction, and (iv) other markets such as manufactured housing. According to the Gypsum Association, industry shipments of gypsum wallboard declined 1% to 27.9 billion square feet in calendar 2023. We estimate that residential construction and repair and remodel accounted for more than 80% of calendar 2023 industry sales.

Demand for gypsum wallboard closely follows construction industry cycles, particularly housing construction. Demand for wallboard can be seasonal and is generally highest from spring through the middle of autumn.

We sell gypsum wallboard to numerous building-materials dealers, gypsum wallboard specialty distributors, lumber yards, home-center chains, and other customers located throughout the United States, with the exception of the Northeast. Gypsum wallboard is sold on a delivered basis, mostly by truck. We generally use third-party common carriers for deliveries. Four customers collectively accounted for approximately 60% of our Gypsum Wallboard segment sales during fiscal 2024.

 

 

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Although gypsum wallboard is distributed principally in local areas, certain industry producers (including the Company) have the ability to ship gypsum wallboard by rail outside their usual regional distribution areas to regions where demand is strong. Our rail distribution capabilities permit us to service customers in markets on both the east and west coasts, except for the Northeast. Less than 5% of our Wallboard volume sold during fiscal 2024 was delivered via rail.

There are currently six manufacturers of gypsum wallboard in the U.S., operating a total of 60 plants with a total of 67 lines, per the Gypsum Association. We estimate that the four largest producers ‒ Knauf, National Gypsum Company, CertainTeed, and Koch Industries ‒ account for approximately 85% of gypsum wallboard sales in the U.S. Total wallboard-rated production capacity in the United States is currently estimated by the Gypsum Association at approximately 32.3 billion square feet per year.

Raw Materials and Fuel Supplies

We mine and extract natural gypsum, the principal raw material used in the manufacture of gypsum wallboard, from quarries owned, leased, or subject to mining claims owned by the Company and located near our plants. Our New Mexico reserves are under lease with the Pueblo of Zia. Gypsum ore reserves at the Gypsum, Colorado plant are contained within a total of 115 placer claims encompassing 2,300 acres. Included in this are 94 unpatented mining claims, where mineral rights can be developed upon completion of permitting requirements. We entered into a long-term agreement in 2005 with a public utility in South Carolina for synthetic gypsum, which we use at our Georgetown, South Carolina plant. This agreement has an initial term through December 2029 and we have two 20-year extension options that would extend the term through December 2069 should we elect to exercise both of our extension options. If the utility is unable to generate the agreed-upon amount of gypsum, it is responsible for providing gypsum from a third party to fulfill its obligations.

Through our modern low-cost paperboard mill, we manufacture sufficient quantities of paper necessary for our gypsum wallboard production. Paper is a significant cost component in the manufacture of gypsum wallboard, currently representing approximately one-third of our production cost. Paper costs are expected to be relatively consistent throughout fiscal 2024. See Raw Materials and Fuel Supplies in the Recycled Paperboard section for more discussion.

Our gypsum wallboard manufacturing operations use natural gas and electrical power. A significant portion of the Company’s natural gas requirements for our gypsum wallboard plants are currently provided by three gas producers under gas-supply agreements expiring in October 2024 for Colorado and South Carolina, and October 2025 for Oklahoma. If the agreements are not renewed, we anticipate being able to obtain our gas supplies from other suppliers at competitive prices. Electrical power is supplied to our New Mexico plants at standard industrial rates by a local utility. For our Albuquerque plant, we have an interruptible power supply agreement, which may expose it to some production interruptions during periods of power curtailment. Power for our Gypsum, Colorado facility is generated at the facility by a cogeneration power plant that we own and operate. Currently, the cogeneration power facility supplies power and waste hot gases for drying to the gypsum wallboard plant. We do not sell any power to third parties. Natural gas costs represented approximately 8% of our production costs in fiscal 2024.

Environmental Matters

The gypsum wallboard industry is subject to numerous federal, state, and local laws and regulations pertaining to health, safety, and the environment. Some of these laws, such as the federal CAA and the federal CWA and analogous state laws, impose environmental permitting requirements and govern the nature and amount of emissions that may be generated when conducting particular operations. Some

 

 

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laws, such as CERCLA and analogous state laws, impose obligations to clean up or remediate spills of hazardous materials into the environment. Other laws require us to reclaim certain land upon completion of extraction and mining operations in our quarries. None of our Gypsum Wallboard operations is the subject of any pending local, state, or federal environmental proceedings. We do not, and have not, used asbestos in any of our gypsum wallboard products.

We use synthetic gypsum in wallboard manufactured at our Georgetown, South Carolina plant. On April 17, 2015, the EPA published its final rule addressing the storage, reuse, and disposal of coal combustion products, which include fly ash and flue gas desulfurization gypsum (synthetic gypsum). The rule, which applies only to electric utilities and independent power producers, establishes standards for the management of coal combustion residuals (CCRs) under Subtitle D of the RCRA, which is the Subtitle that regulates non-hazardous wastes. The rule imposes requirements addressing CCR surface impoundments and landfills, including location restrictions, design, and operating specifications; groundwater monitoring requirements; corrective action requirements; recordkeeping and reporting obligations; and closure requirements. Beneficial encapsulated uses of CCRs, including synthetic gypsum, are exempt from regulation. The rule became effective on October 19, 2015. Given the EPA’s decision to continue to allow CCR to be used in synthetic gypsum and to regulate CCR under the non-hazardous waste sections of RCRA, we do not expect the rule to materially affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations. The EPA proposed revisions to the final CCR rule in 2018, 2019, 2020 and 2023, none of which sought to overturn the management of CCR as non-hazardous waste or the regulatory exemption for beneficial encapsulated use of CCR. Accordingly, we do not believe that these proposed revisions are likely to have material effects on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

As discussed in greater detail in the “Environmental Matters” section for Cement, the EPA in October 2015 strengthened the NAAQS for ozone, which lowered the primary and secondary standards from 75 parts per billion (ppb) to 70 ppb, and on February 7, 2024 the EPA announced its final rule to change the NAAQS for fine particle pollution, also known as fine particulate matter (PM2.5) or soot, and related monitoring requirements. Either of these regulations could have a material impact on our gypsum wallboard business, if areas in or surrounding our operations obtain nonattainment designations, or if the EPA chooses to revise and lower the current ozone NAAQS.

Our gypsum wallboard manufacturing process combusts natural gas. It is possible that GHG emissions from our manufacturing could become subject to regulation under the CAA as the EPA begins issuing new regulations to achieve President Biden’s GHG emission reduction goals. For a more detailed discussion of this issue, see the “Environmental Matters” section of our Cement business description on pages 13-15.

Although our Gypsum Wallboard operations could be adversely affected by federal, regional, or state climate change initiatives, at this time, it is not possible to accurately estimate how future laws or regulations addressing GHG emissions would impact our business. However, any imposition of raw materials or production limitations, fuel-use or carbon taxes, or emission limitations or reductions could have a significant impact on the gypsum wallboard manufacturing industry and a material adverse effect on the financial results of our operations.

There were no capital expenditures related to compliance with environmental regulations applicable to our Gypsum Wallboard operations during fiscal 2024. We anticipate spending $1.3 million during fiscal 2025.

 

 

23


 

Recycled Paperboard

Our Recycled Paperboard manufacturing operation, which we refer to as Republic Paperboard Company, is located in Lawton, Oklahoma and has a technologically advanced paper machine designed primarily for gypsum liner production utilizing 100% recycled paper. The paper’s uniform cross-directional strength and finish characteristics facilitate the efficiencies of new high-speed wallboard manufacturing lines and improve the efficiencies of the slower wallboard manufacturing lines. Although the machine was designed primarily to manufacture gypsum liner products, we are also able to manufacture several alternative products, including containerboard grades and lightweight packaging grades. We currently estimate the annual capacity of our paper mill to be approximately 390,000 tons.

Our paper machine allows the Paperboard operation to manufacture high-strength gypsum liner that is approximately 10% to 15% lighter in basis weight than what is generally available in the U.S. The low-basis weight product utilizes less recycled fiber to produce paper that, in turn, requires less energy (natural gas) to evaporate moisture from the board during the gypsum wallboard manufacturing process. The low-basis weight paper also reduces the overall finished board weight, providing our Wallboard operations with more competitive transportation costs for both the inbound and outbound segments.

Demand, Sales, and Distribution

Our manufactured recycled paperboard products are sold to gypsum wallboard manufacturers and other industrial users. During fiscal 2024, approximately 45% of the recycled paperboard sold by our paper mill was consumed by the Company’s Gypsum Wallboard manufacturing operations. We have contracts with two other gypsum wallboard manufacturers that expire in the next two to three years. They represent approximately 50% of our total segment revenue, with most of the remaining volume shipped to other gypsum wallboard manufacturers. The loss of any of these contracts or the termination or reduction of their current production of gypsum wallboard, unless replaced by a commercially similar arrangement, could have a material adverse effect on the Company.

Raw Materials and Fuel Supplies

The principal raw materials in recycled paperboard are recycled paper fiber (recovered wastepaper), water, and specialty paper chemicals. The largest wastepaper source used by the operation is old corrugated containers (known as OCC). A blend of high grades (white paper grades consisting of both printed and unprinted papers such as news blank, manifold white ledger, and other paper grades) is used in the gypsum liner facing paper, white top linerboard, and white bag liner grades.

We believe that an adequate supply of recycled paper fiber will continue to be available from sources located in reasonable proximity to the paper mill. Although we have the capability to receive rail shipments, the vast majority of the recycled fiber purchased is delivered via truck. Prices are subject to market fluctuations based on generation of material (supply), demand, and the presence of the export market. Fiber pricing, on average, was lower in fiscal 2024 than in fiscal 2023; however, fiber pricing increased during the second half of fiscal 2024, compared with the first half of the year. Fiber prices are subject to change upon short notice due to factors outside of our control. Current gypsum liner customer contracts include price escalators that partially offset and compensate for changes in raw material fiber prices. The chemicals used in the paper-making operation, including size, retention aids, biocides, and sheet strength additives, are available from several manufacturers at competitive prices.

 

 

 

24


 

The production of recycled paperboard involves the use of a large volume of water. We have an agreement with the City of Lawton municipal services to supply water to our manufacturing facility which expires in January 2025. We are currently negotiating a new contract and will see an increase in water rates upon the expiration of the current contract. Electricity, natural gas, and other utilities are available to us at either contracted rates or standard industrial rates in adequate supplies. These utilities are subject to standard industrial curtailment provisions.

Paperboard operations are generally large consumers of energy, mostly natural gas and electricity. Electricity is supplied to the paper mill by Public Service of Oklahoma (PSO), and they have requested an increase in rates for fiscal 2025. Oklahoma is a regulated state for electricity services, and all rate change requests must be presented to the Oklahoma Corporation Commission for review and approval before implementation. At this time, we are unable to estimate how much of the increase will be granted by the Oklahoma Corporation Commission. This power company has been moving its fuel source dependency to natural gas, and investing in wind energy, which could affect our electricity rates in future years. Natural gas costs in fiscal 2024 were lower than those in fiscal 2023, and they are subject to change upon short notice and due to factors beyond our control. We use forward purchase contracts to manage our exposure to future price changes.

Environmental Matters

There were $7.7 million of capital expenditures related to compliance with environmental regulations applicable to our Recycled Paperboard operations during fiscal 2024. We anticipate spending $11.9 million on a water treatment project during fiscal 2025.

Where You Can Find More Information

We publish our annual reports on Form 10-K and Form DEF 14A, Annual Proxy Statement; our quarterly reports on Form 10-Q; and current reports on Form 8-K. These reports, along with all amendments to them, are available free of charge through the Investor Relations page of our website, eaglematerials.com as soon as reasonably practicable after they are filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).

The Company also has a Code of Ethics, Human Rights Policy, Code of Vendor Conduct, and Occupational Health and Safety Policy, which can be accessed on our website, as well. Additionally, our Corporate Governance Guidelines and Stock Ownership Guidelines, as well as the charters for the Audit; Compensation; and Corporate Governance, Nominating and Sustainability Committees of the Board are also available on our website. All of these Corporate Governance and Board Committee Charter documents are available at ir.eaglematerials.com/corporate-governance. Our Sustainability Report is available at eaglematerials.com.

These references to our website are intended solely to inform investors where they may obtain additional information; the materials and other information presented on our website are not incorporated in and should not otherwise be considered part of this Report. Additionally, investors may obtain information by contacting our Investor Relations department directly at (214) 432-2000 or by writing to Eagle Materials Inc., Investor Relations, 5960 Berkshire Lane, Suite 900, Dallas, Texas 75225.

 

 

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ITEM 1A. Risk Factors

The foregoing discussion of our business and operations should be read together with the risk factors set forth below. They describe various risks and uncertainties to which we are or may become subject, many of which are outside of our control. These risks and uncertainties have affected, or may in the future affect, our business, operations, financial condition and results of operations in a material and adverse manner.

INDUSTRY RISK FACTORS

We are affected by the level of demand in the construction industry.

Demand for our construction products and building materials is directly related to the level of activity in the construction industry, which includes residential, commercial and infrastructure construction. Our products are used in a variety of public infrastructure projects that are funded and financed by federal, state and local governments, including public construction projects to build, expand and repair roads and highways. Our products are also essential to commercial and residential construction.

Although we expect an increase in infrastructure spending by the federal and some state and local governments due to the passage of the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act in November 2021, infrastructure spending may be adversely affected by several factors. Under U.S. law, annual funding levels for highways is subject to yearly appropriation reviews. The uncertainties associated with these reviews or other factors could result in states being reluctant to undertake large multi-year highway projects. In general, there can be no assurance as to the amount and timing of appropriations for spending on federal, state or local projects. Any decrease in the amount of government funds available for such projects could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

The strength of the construction industry is also substantially affected by macroeconomic and other factors beyond our control. For example, the recent rises in inflation and interest rates have negatively impacted the construction industry by, among other things, increasing material costs and decreasing demand for some construction products. While we cannot predict the extent to which inflation or rising interest rates will continue or increase, any further increases could result in a reduction in residential or commercial activity, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. In addition, demand for our products sold to the residential and commercial construction industries could decline if our customers cannot obtain funding for construction projects or if the costs of obtaining such funding increase, or due to other market factors such as labor shortages and supply chain issues.

Our business is seasonal in nature, and this causes our quarterly results to vary significantly.

A majority of our business is seasonal with peak revenue and profits occurring primarily in the months of April through November when the weather in our markets tends to be more favorable for construction activity. Quarterly results have varied significantly in the past and are likely to vary significantly in the future. Such variations could have a negative impact on our results of operations and the price of our common stock.

We are subject to the risk of unfavorable weather conditions, as well as other unexpected operational difficulties, and the effect of these conditions and difficulties can be more pronounced during peak construction periods.

Unfavorable weather conditions, such as snow, cold weather, tornadoes, hurricanes, tropical storms, and heavy or sustained rainfall or flooding, can reduce construction activity and adversely affect demand for

 

 

26


 

construction products. In addition, severe weather conditions can impair our ability to continue our operations, and even require the closure of certain of our facilities on a temporary or extended basis. Weather conditions also have the potential to increase our costs (including the cost of natural gas and electric power), reduce our production, or impede our ability to transport our products in an efficient and cost-effective manner.

Similarly, operational difficulties, such as those resulting from required maintenance, capital improvement projects, or loss of power, can interrupt our business activities, increase our costs and reduce our production.

The effect of these risks is more pronounced during peak construction periods, such as the months of April through November, during which any reduction in demand or production could have a disproportionately large effect on our sales and operating profits.

We and our customers participate in cyclical industries and regional markets, which are subject to industry downturns.

A majority of our revenue is from customers who are in industries and businesses that are cyclical in nature and subject to changes in general economic conditions. For example, many of our customers operate in the construction industry, which is affected by a variety of factors, such as general economic conditions, the availability of credit, changes in interest rates, demographic and population shifts, levels of infrastructure spending, consumer confidence, demands, and preferences and other factors beyond our control. In addition, since our operations are in a variety of geographic markets, our businesses are subject to differing economic conditions in each such geographic market. Economic downturns in the industries to which we sell our products or localized downturns in the regions where we have operations generally have an adverse effect on demand for our products and negatively affect the collectability of our receivables. In general, any downturns in these industries or regions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Many of our products are commodities, which are subject to significant changes in supply and demand and price fluctuations.

Many of the products sold by us are commodities, and competition among manufacturers is based largely on price. Prices are often subject to material changes in response to relatively minor fluctuations in supply and demand, general economic conditions, and other market conditions beyond our control. Increases in the production capacity of industry participants for products such as gypsum wallboard or cement (including in connection with the increased use of Portland Limestone Cement) or increases in cement imports tend to create an oversupply of such products leading to an imbalance between supply and demand, which can have a negative impact on product prices. Currently, there continues to be significant excess nameplate capacity in the gypsum wallboard industry in the United States. There can be no assurance that prices for products sold by us will not decline in the future or that such declines will not have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Our businesses operate in highly competitive industries, and we face many competitors, some of which have more resources than our company.

Our businesses have many domestic and international competitors, some of which are bigger and have more resources than we do. Our results of operations in a particular market are affected by the number of competitors in a market, the production capacity that such market can accommodate, the pricing practices of other competitors and the entry of new competitors in a market. We also face competition for some of our products from alternative products, new product technologies, modified production and distribution processes and alternative business models. For example, in the case of alternative products and new

 

 

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product technologies, efforts are underway by our existing competitors and new entrants to, among other things, increase the usage of cement substitutes (including silicate minerals and calcinated clay) in the production of cement. Our Concrete and Aggregates segment competes with recycled concrete products that can be used in certain applications instead of new products and our cement operations compete with international competitors who import products into the United States from jurisdictions with lower production and regulatory costs. In general, we operate in a competitive market and any significant increase in competition or unfavorable change in competitive circumstances could lead to lower prices or lower sales volumes, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.

ECONOMIC, POLITICAL, AND LEGAL RISK FACTORS

A pandemic, epidemic, or other public health emergency, or governmental measures in reaction thereto, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and cash flows.

Our operations expose us to risks associated with pandemics, epidemics or other public health emergencies. For example, the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic disrupted global trade, commerce, financial and credit markets, and daily life throughout the world. The pandemic resulted in governments in the United States and elsewhere in the world implementing or reimplementing strict measures to help control the spread of the virus, including quarantines, “shelter in place” and “stay at home” orders, travel restrictions, business curtailments, school closures, and other measures. Any future public health emergency could negatively impact our business in a number of ways, including the health of our employees and employee productivity, the availability and pricing of fuel and raw materials, our ability to fulfill customer contracts, and the availability of our transportation and distribution networks. For example, if one or more of our facilities become subject to closure in connection with a public health emergency, our business as a whole could be materially affected.

In general, the impact of a pandemic, epidemic or other public health emergency could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition or cash flows. The negative impact of a pandemic, epidemic or other public health emergency could also impact our customers in similar ways, causing customers to postpone projects, cancel or delay orders, curtail operations or file for bankruptcy protection. The extent to which a pandemic, epidemic, or other public health emergency could impact our business will depend on numerous factors that we are not able to accurately predict.

Our and our customers’ operations are subject to extensive governmental regulation, including environmental, health, and safety laws, which can be costly and burdensome.

Our operations and those of our customers are subject to and affected by federal, state, and local laws and regulations with respect to a wide range of matters, including land usage, street and highway usage, noise level, as well as environmental, health and safety matters. In many instances, various certificates, permits, or licenses are required in order for us or our customers to conduct business or carry out construction and related operations. Although we believe that we are in compliance in all material respects with applicable regulatory requirements, there can be no assurance that we will not incur material costs or liabilities in seeking to comply with existing or new laws or regulations, or that demand for our products will not be adversely affected by regulatory issues affecting our customers.

Certain of our waste-burning cement kilns are subject to the CISWI Rule, which is discussed above in “Environmental Matters” in the Cement section. In addition, some of the states in which we operate contain at least one “area” that was designated as being in nonattainment for the 2015 ozone NAAQS or had adopted a SIP to address their interstate transportation obligations, which was disapproved by the EPA, and is or will be subject to a FIP finalized by the EPA imposing stricter standards and more

 

 

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burdensome obligations. We may be required to meet new control requirements in our facilities in these states requiring significant capital expenditures for compliance and may incur additional operating costs or need to modify or curtail the nature and scope of our operations at such facilities to meet our regulatory obligations. Further, in February 2024, the EPA announced its final rule lowering the primary (health-based) standard for fine particle matter, which may have a similar impact on us. For further information regarding these matters, please refer to Item 1. Business - Industry Segment Information. We have incurred, and in the future expect to incur, significant capital and operating expenditures to comply with such laws and regulations. The cost of complying with such laws and regulations could significantly affect our businesses.

Manufacturing and construction sites are inherently dangerous workplaces. Our manufacturing sites often put our employees and others in proximity to kilns and other large pieces of mechanized equipment, moving vehicles, chemical and manufacturing processes and exposes them to other potential safety hazards. We endeavor to maintain a safe work environment at all our facilities and take steps to ensure the health and safety of our workforce. There can be no assurance, however, that these measures will be successful in preventing injuries or violations of health and safety laws and regulations. Any failure to maintain safe work sites or violations of applicable health and safety standards and laws could have a material adverse effect on our business.

In addition to the existing regulatory risks we face, future developments, such as the discovery of new facts or conditions, the enactment or adoption of new or stricter laws or regulations, or stricter interpretations of existing laws or regulations, may impose new liabilities on us, require additional investment by us, or prevent us from opening, expanding, or modifying plants or facilities, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Climate change and climate change legislation or regulations may adversely affect our business, including potential physical and financial impacts.

The effects of climate change and legislation and regulation concerning GHGs could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, and liquidity. A number of governmental bodies have finalized, proposed, or are contemplating legislative and regulatory changes in response to the potential effects of climate change. Such legislation or regulation has and potentially could include provisions for a “cap and trade” system of allowances and credits or a carbon tax, among other provisions. Any future laws or regulations addressing GHG emissions would likely have a negative impact on our business or results of operations, whether through the imposition of raw material or production limitations, fuel-use, or carbon taxes, emission limitations or reductions, or otherwise. Notably, curbing GHG emissions and tackling climate change is a clear priority for President Biden’s administration.

Any additional regulatory restrictions on emissions of GHGs imposed by the EPA will likely impact our cement plants and wallboard plants, each of which currently file annual reports of GHG emissions as required by the EPA’s Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program rule. However, at the present time it is not possible to estimate the cost of any such future requirements. In addition, we may not be able to recover any increased operating costs, taxes or capital investments relating to GHG emission limitations at those plants from our customers while still maintaining pricing that is competitive in the relevant markets.

The effects of future climate change legislation and regulation concerning GHGs are highly uncertain and difficult to estimate. However, because a chemical reaction inherent to the manufacture of portland cement releases carbon dioxide, a GHG, cement kiln operations may be disproportionately affected by future regulation of GHGs. Our cement plants, like those of other cement operators, require combustion of significant amounts of fuel to generate high kiln temperatures and create carbon dioxide as a product of the calcination process, which is an unavoidable step in making cement clinker. Accordingly, we

 

 

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continue to closely monitor GHG regulations and legislation for potential impact on our Cement business. There is also a potential for climate change legislation and regulation to adversely affect the cost of purchased energy and electricity.

Other potential effects of climate change include physical effects such as disruption in production and product distribution as a result of major storm events and shifts in regional weather patterns and intensities. Production and shipment levels for our businesses correlate with general construction activity, most of which occurs outdoors and, as a result, is affected by erratic weather patterns, seasonal changes, and other unusual or unexpected weather-related conditions, which can significantly affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We may communicate certain initiatives and goals regarding GHGs and related matters in our SEC filings or in other public disclosures. On March 6, 2024, the SEC adopted new rules regarding climate-related disclosures. While currently being challenged in legal proceedings, these rules would require public companies to make a wide range of climate-related disclosures. Our initiatives and goals regarding GHGs and the related disclosure requirements, together with the associated controls and procedures that we will need to implement, may be difficult and expensive and we could be criticized for the scope, accuracy, adequacy or completeness of the disclosure we provide. Further, to the extent we elect to make statements about our GHG-related initiatives and goals, and progress towards these goals, these statements may be based on standards for measuring progress that are still developing, internal controls and processes that continue to evolve, and assumptions that are subject to change in the future. If our GHG-related data, processes and reporting are inaccurate or incomplete, or if we fail to achieve progress with respect to these goals or initiatives on a timely basis or at all, we could be subject to liability for inaccurate, incomplete, or misleading statements, and our operations and financial performance could be adversely affected.

Increasing regulatory, stakeholder, and societal environmental, social, governance, and other sustainability (ESG) matters and our response to these matters could negatively affect our business.

We are subject to increasing governmental, stakeholder, and societal attention to ESG matters, including, climate change, air emissions, waste management, water management, community engagement, human rights, labor, health and safety, and information disclosure. Such attention may alter the environment in which we do business and may increase the ongoing costs of compliance, assessment, and reporting and adversely impact our financial condition, results of operations, and liquidity. We communicate certain initiatives and goals, regarding ESG-related matters in our SEC filings or in other public disclosures. Statements about our ESG-related initiatives and goals, and progress against these goals, may be based on standards for measuring progress that are still developing, internal controls and processes that continue to evolve, and assumptions that are subject to change in the future. Non-compliance with, or a failure to address, the regulatory, stakeholder, and societal expectations and accompanying emerging ESG regulation and policy requirements (and related interpretations) may result in potential cost increases, fines, penalties, production restrictions, brand or reputational damage, loss of customers, failure to retain and attract talent, and investor activism.

We may become subject to significant cleanup, remediation, reclamation, and other liabilities under applicable environmental laws.

Our operations are subject to state, federal, and local environmental laws and regulations, which, in some cases, impose strict liability for cleanup or remediation of environmental pollution and hazardous waste regardless of negligence or fault and expose us to liability for the conduct of others or for our actions, even if such actions complied with all applicable laws at the time these actions were taken. These laws and regulations also require pollution control and prevention, site restoration, reclamation, and operating

 

 

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permits, and/or approvals to conduct certain of our operations or expand or modify our facilities. These laws and regulations may also expose us to liability for claims of personal injury or property or natural resources damage related to alleged exposure to, or releases of, regulated or hazardous materials. Certain of our operations may from time to time involve the use of substances that are classified as toxic or hazardous substances within the meaning of these laws and regulations. We are unable to estimate accurately the impact on our business or results of operations of any such law or regulation at this time. Risk of environmental liability (including the incurrence of fines, penalties, other sanctions, or litigation liability) is inherent in the operation of our businesses. As a result, it is possible that environmental liabilities and compliance with environmental regulations could have a material adverse effect on our operations in the future.

Our operations are dependent on our rights and ability to mine our properties and on our having renewed or received the required permits and approvals from governmental authorities and other third parties.

We hold numerous governmental, environmental, mining, and other permits, water rights, and approvals authorizing operations at many of our facilities. A decision by a governmental agency or other third parties to deny or delay issuing a new or renewed permit or approval, or to revoke or substantially modify an existing permit or approval, could have a material adverse effect on our ability to continue operations at the affected facility. Expansion of our existing operations is also predicated on securing the necessary environmental or other permits, water rights, or approvals, which we may not receive in a timely manner or at all.

Title to, and the area of, mineral properties and water rights may also be disputed. Mineral properties sometimes contain claims or transfer histories that examiners cannot verify. A successful claim that we do not have title to one or more of our properties or lack appropriate water rights could cause us to lose any rights to explore, develop, and extract any minerals or utilize water on that property, without compensation for our prior expenditures relating to such property. Our business may suffer a material adverse effect in the event one or more of our properties are determined to have title deficiencies.

In some instances, we have received access rights or easements from third parties, which allow for a more efficient operation than would exist without the access or easement. A third party could take action to suspend such access or easement, and any such action could be materially adverse to our results of operations or financial conditions.

We may incur significant costs in connection with pending and future litigation.

We are, or may become, party to various lawsuits, claims, investigations, and proceedings, including but not limited to personal injury, environmental, antitrust, tax, asbestos, property entitlements and land use, intellectual property, commercial, contract, product liability, health and safety, and employment matters. The outcome of pending or future lawsuits, claims, investigations, or proceedings is often difficult to predict and could be adverse and require the payment of damages that are material in amount or require changes to the nature and scope of our operations. Developments in these proceedings can lead to changes in management’s estimates of liabilities associated with these proceedings, including as a result of rulings or judgments by a judge, agency, or arbitrator, settlements, or changes in applicable law. A future adverse ruling, settlement, or unfavorable development could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and cash flows in a particular period. In addition, the defense of these lawsuits, claims, investigations, and proceedings may divert our management’s attention from operating and managing our businesses, and we may incur significant costs in defending these matters.

 

 

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Although we maintain insurance coverage against various risk, this coverage may not be adequate or protect us against the relevant risks.

We maintain insurance coverage in amounts and against insurable risks that we believe are consistent with industry practice, but this insurance may not be adequate to cover all losses or liabilities we may incur in our operations. Our insurance policies are subject to a number or exclusions and varying levels of deductibles and coverage limits. In general, liabilities subject to insurance are difficult to estimate due to unknown factors, including the severity of an injury, the determination of our liability in proportion to other parties, the number of incidents not reported and the effectiveness of our safety programs. If we were to experience insurance claims or costs above our estimates, our financial condition, results of operations and liquidity could be materially and adversely affected.

RISK FACTORS RELATED TO OUR GOVERNING DOCUMENTS

Certain provisions in our restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws may prevent or delay an acquisition of our company, which could decrease the trading price of the common stock.

Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws contain provisions that are intended to deter coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids by making such practices or bids unacceptably expensive to the bidder and to encourage prospective acquirers to negotiate with our Board rather than to attempt a hostile takeover. For example, under our certificate of incorporation, our Board are divided into three classes based on their term of office, with directors in each class holding office for staggered three-year terms. In addition, our certificate of incorporation or bylaws prohibit stockholder action by written consent, limit the ability of our stockholders to call special meetings, establish advance notice procedures for stockholder proposals and nominations for election of directors and allow our Board to issue blank check preferred stock with voting or conversion rights without stockholder approval. In general, we believe that these provisions will help protect our stockholders from coercive or otherwise unfair takeover tactics by requiring potential acquirers to negotiate with our Board and by providing our Board with more time to assess any acquisition proposal. These provisions are not intended to make us immune from takeovers. However, these provisions will apply even if the offer may be considered beneficial by some stockholders and could delay or prevent an acquisition that our Board determines is not in the best interests of our company and its stockholders.

Our bylaws include a forum selection clause, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us.

Our bylaws provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the sole and exclusive forum for (i) any internal corporate claims within the meaning of the Delaware General Corporation Law (DGCL), (ii) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (iii) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers, or employees to us or to our stockholders, (iv) any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL, or (v) any action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine, will be a state or federal court located within the State of Delaware in all cases subject to the court’s having personal jurisdiction over the indispensable parties named as defendants. In addition, our bylaws provide that, unless we consent in writing to selection of an alternative forum, the sole and exclusive forum for any action asserting a claim arising under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the Securities Act), will be a federal district court. Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in shares of our capital stock is deemed to have notice of and consented to the foregoing provisions. This forum selection provision in our bylaws may limit our stockholders’ ability to pursue claims in a judicial forum of their choosing for disputes with us or our directors, officers, or employees. It is also possible that, notwithstanding the forum selection

 

 

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clause included in our bylaws, a court could rule in specific circumstances that such a provision is inapplicable or unenforceable, which could require that we defend claims in other forums.

CYBER RISK FACTORS

We are dependent on information technology. A disruption, cyber-attack or data security breach affecting our information technology systems may negatively affect our businesses, financial condition, and operating results.

Our operations rely on information technology systems and the secure processing, storage, and transmission of confidential, sensitive, proprietary, and other types of information relating to our business operations. We also rely on confidential and sensitive information about our customers and employees, which is maintained both in our computer systems and networks, and in the computer systems and networks of our third-party vendors. Any significant breakdown, invasion, destruction, outage, disruption or interruption of our systems could negatively affect operations. Cyber threats are rapidly evolving as data thieves and hackers have become increasingly sophisticated and carry out direct large-scale, complex automated attacks against a company or through vendor software supply chain compromises. We are not able to anticipate or prevent all such breakdowns, invasions, destructions, outages, disruptions, interruptions, and attacks and could be held liable for any resulting material security breach or data loss. Additionally, it is not always possible to foresee or prevent internal issues, such as human error, or malicious acts or misconduct by employees or third-party vendors. There are also significant risks related to the use of remote networking services and technologies that enable remote work.

Any breaches of our technology systems, or those of our vendors and customers, whether from circumvention of security systems, denial-of-service attacks or other cyber-attacks, hacking, “phishing” attacks, computer viruses, ransomware or malware, employee or insider error, malfeasance, social engineering, vendor software supply chain compromises, physical breaches or other actions, may result in manipulation or corruption of sensitive data, material interruptions or malfunctions in our or such vendors’ and customers’ websites, applications, data processing and certain products and services, or disruption of other business operations. Furthermore, any such breaches could compromise the confidentiality and integrity of material information held by us (including information about our business, employees, or customers), as well as sensitive personally identifiable information, the disclosure of which could lead to identity theft. Any measures that we take to avoid, detect, mitigate or recover from material incidents, may be insufficient, circumvented, or may become ineffective.

We have invested and continue to invest in risk management and information security and data privacy measures in order to protect our systems and data, including employee training, organizational investments, incident response plans, tabletop exercises and technical defenses. The cost and operational consequences of implementing, maintaining, and enhancing further data or system safeguards could increase significantly to keep pace with increasingly frequent, complex, and sophisticated global cyber threats. Although we believe we have taken adequate measures to protect against data breaches and system disruptions, we are not able to anticipate or prevent all such risks. Any material breaches of cybersecurity, including the accidental loss, inadvertent disclosure or unapproved dissemination of proprietary information or sensitive or confidential data, or media reports of perceived security vulnerabilities to our systems, products, and services or those of our third parties could cause us to experience reputational harm, loss of customers and revenue, fines, regulatory actions and scrutiny, sanctions or other statutory penalties, litigation, liability for failure to safeguard our customers’ information, or financial losses that are either not insured against or not fully covered through any insurance maintained by us. The report, rumor, or assumption regarding a potential breach may have similar results, even if no breach has been attempted or occurred. Any of the foregoing may have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial condition. In addition, laws and regulations

 

 

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governing cybersecurity, data privacy and protection, and the unauthorized disclosure of confidential or protected information pose increasingly complex compliance challenges and potentially elevate costs, and any failure to comply with these laws and regulations could result in significant penalties and legal liability.

FINANCIAL AND OPERATIONAL RISK FACTORS

Our Cement business is capital-intensive, resulting in significant fixed and semi-fixed costs. Therefore, our earnings are sensitive to changes in volume.

Due to the high levels of fixed capital required to produce cement, the ability of our Cement segment to remain profitable is dependent on achieving and maintaining strong volumes of cement production and sales. Any decreases in volume could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, our cement plants require significant capital expenditures to support the maintenance, growth, and expansion of our business. We believe that our current cash balance, along with our projected internal cash flows and our available financing resources will provide sufficient cash to support our currently anticipated operating and capital needs. However, if we are unable to generate sufficient cash to purchase and maintain the property and machinery necessary to operate our Cement business, we may be required to reduce or delay planned capital expenditures or incur additional debt.

Any material nonpayment or nonperformance by any of our key customers could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

Any material nonpayment or nonperformance by any of our key customers could have a material adverse effect on our revenue and cash flows. Although our contracts with our customers provide for certain remedies in the event a customer fails to purchase the minimum contracted amount of product in a given period, we may be unable to enforce payment or performance obligations in a timely manner or at all or recover the entire amount we anticipated receiving under such contract. If we were to pursue legal remedies against a customer that failed to purchase the minimum contracted amount of product under a fixed-volume contract or failed to satisfy the take-or-pay commitment under a take-or-pay contract, we may receive significantly less in a judgment or settlement of any claimed breach than we would have received had the customer fully performed under the contract. In the event of any customer’s breach, we may also choose to renegotiate any disputed contract on less favorable terms (including with respect to price and volume) to allow us to preserve the relationship with that customer.

Consolidation of our customers could adversely affect our results of operations.

Over the past few years, many of our customers have undergone consolidation due to being acquired by, or acquiring, another company with similar operations. Consolidation of our customers could result in the loss of a customer or a portion of their business, in addition to an increased reliance on certain key customers. Future consolidation of our customers and their increased purchasing power could result in our customers seeking more favorable terms, including pricing, which may limit our ability to maintain pricing or raise pricing in the future. Any future consolidation of our customers could negatively impact our operating margin, results of operations, and cash flow.

Volatility and disruption of financial markets could affect access to credit.

Instability in the global economy or negative conditions in the credit markets that limit or impair our access to credit may adversely affect our business. In general, we often rely upon banks and, in some cases, the capital markets to fund our growth strategy. Any downgrades in our credit ratings may make raising capital more difficult, increase the cost and affect the terms of future borrowings and limit our ability to take advantage of potential business opportunities. If we are unable to secure financing on acceptable

 

 

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terms, our other sources of funds, including available cash and cash flow from operations, may not be adequate to fund our operations and contractual commitments and refinance existing debt.

We are also exposed to risks associated with the creditworthiness of our customers and suppliers. A number of our customers or suppliers have been and may continue to be adversely affected by unsettled conditions in capital and credit markets, which in some cases have made it more difficult or costly for them to finance their business operations. These unsettled conditions have the potential to reduce the sources of liquidity for the Company, and our customers and our suppliers, which could negatively impact our business.

Our results of operations are subject to significant changes in the cost and availability of fuel, energy, and other raw materials.

Major cost components in each of our businesses are the costs of fuel, energy, and raw materials. Significant increases in the costs of fuel, energy, or raw materials, or substantial decreases in their availability, could materially and adversely affect our sales and operating profits. Prices for fuel, energy, or raw materials used in connection with our businesses have in some cases been subject to significant changes in a short period of time for reasons outside our control. For example, prices for fuel and electrical power, which are significant components of the costs associated with our Gypsum Wallboard and Cement businesses, have fluctuated significantly in recent years and may increase further in the future. The prices we pay for fuel and electric power are often determined in whole or in part by market-based pricing mechanisms (including spot market pricing mechanisms). In the past, we have experienced significant and unanticipated price increases due to, among other things, unfavorable weather conditions and governmental responses from the resulting shortages in fuel and power. Significant price fluctuations also have the potential to give rise to disputes with contractual counterparties, which can be complex and difficult to resolve. In the event of large or rapid increases in prices, we may not be able to pass the increases through to our customers in full, which would reduce our operating margin.

Changes in the cost or availability of raw materials supplied by third parties may adversely affect our operating and financial performance.

We generally maintain our own reserves of limestone, gypsum, aggregates, and other materials that we use to manufacture our products. Our ability to find and develop quality reserves and accurately calculate and report our reserve estimates depend upon geological interpretation and statistical inferences or assumptions drawn from drilling and sampling analysis, which are subject to inherent uncertainties. If any of these estimates proved to be inaccurate, our operations and financial condition could be adversely impacted.

We also obtain certain raw materials used to manufacture our products, such as synthetic gypsum and slag granules, from third parties who produce such materials as by-products of industrial processes. While we try to secure our needed supply of such materials through long-term contracts, those contracts may not be sufficient to meet our needs, or we may be unable to renew or replace existing contracts when they expire or are terminated in the future. Should our existing suppliers cease operations or reduce or eliminate production of these by-products, our costs to procure these materials may increase significantly, or we may be obliged to procure alternatives to replace these materials, which may not be available on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Any such developments may adversely affect our operations and financial condition.

 

 

 

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Our production facilities may experience unexpected equipment failures, catastrophic events, and scheduled maintenance.

Our manufacturing processes are complex and dependent upon critical pieces of equipment and effective maintenance programs. Such equipment may, on occasion, be out of service as a result of unanticipated events such as fires, explosions, violent weather conditions, or unexpected operational difficulties. We also have periodically scheduled shut-downs to perform maintenance on our facilities. We consume significant amounts of energy in our production process, and the availability and pricing of these resources are subject to market forces. Any significant interruption in production capability may require us to make significant capital expenditures to remedy problems or damage as well as cause us to lose revenue and profits due to lost production time, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. In general, any interruptions in our production processes or limitation in our production capabilities may cause our productivity and results of operations to decline significantly during the affected period.

Mining for raw materials involves risks such as pit wall failures, pillar or ceiling collapse, flooding and seismic events related to geologic conditions and our mining activities. Any ground control event could lead to serious injuries, loss of life, equipment damage, production delays or cessation and increased operating costs which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

Significant changes in the cost and availability of transportation could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Some of the raw materials used in our manufacturing processes, such as coal or coke, are transported to our facilities by truck or rail. In addition, transportation logistics play an important part in allowing us to supply products to our customers, whether by truck, rail, or barge. For example, we deliver gypsum wallboard to many areas of the United States, and the transportation costs associated with the delivery of our wallboard products represent a significant portion of the variable cost of our Gypsum Wallboard segment. On the other hand, cement is more difficult and costly to transport over long distances, which limits the areas typically served by our cement plants. Significant increases in the cost of fuel or energy can result in material increases in the cost of transportation, which could materially and adversely affect our operating profits. In addition, reductions in the availability of certain modes of transportation, such as rail or trucking, could limit our ability to deliver product and therefore materially and adversely affect our operating profits.

Our debt agreements contain restrictive covenants and require us to meet certain financial ratios and tests, which limit our flexibility and could give rise to a default if we are unable to remain in compliance.

Our outstanding debt agreements contain, among other things, covenants that limit our ability to finance future operations or capital needs or to engage in other business activities, including but not limited to our ability to:

permit our consolidated subsidiaries to incur indebtedness;
sell, transfer, lease, or otherwise dispose of all substantially all of the assets of the Company and its consolidated subsidiaries;
create liens;
consolidate or merge with or into another person;
enter into transactions with our affiliates; and
enter into sale/leaseback transactions.

 

 

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In addition, these agreements require us to meet and maintain certain financial ratios and tests, which may require that we take action to reduce our debt or to act in a manner contrary to our business objectives. Events beyond our control, including changes in general business and economic conditions, may impair our ability to comply with these covenants or meet those financial ratios and tests. A breach of any of these covenants or failure to maintain the required ratios and meet the required tests may result in an event of default under these agreements. This may allow the lenders under these agreements to declare all amounts outstanding to be immediately due and payable, terminate any commitments to extend further credit to us, and pursue other remedies available to them under the applicable agreements. If this occurs, our indebtedness may be accelerated, and we may not be able to refinance the accelerated indebtedness on favorable terms, or at all, or repay the accelerated indebtedness. In general, the occurrence of any event of default under these agreements could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.

We have incurred or may incur substantial indebtedness, which could adversely affect our business, limit our ability to plan for or respond to changes in our business, and reduce our profitability.

In the past, we have incurred significant indebtedness in connection with acquisition transactions or otherwise to fund the growth and development of our business. As of March 31, 2024, we had $1,102.5 million of debt outstanding. We may also incur significant indebtedness from time to time in the future for these or other reasons. Our future ability to satisfy our debt obligations is subject, to some extent, to financial, market, competitive, legislative, regulatory, and other factors that are beyond our control. Substantial debt obligations could have negative consequences to our business, and, in particular, could impede, restrict, or delay the implementation of our business strategy or prevent us from entering into transactions that would otherwise benefit our business. For example:

we may be required to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flows from operations to payments on our indebtedness, thereby reducing the availability of our cash flow for other purposes, including business development efforts, capital expenditures, or strategic acquisitions;
we may not be able to generate sufficient cash flow to meet our substantial debt service obligations or to fund our other liquidity needs. If this occurs, we may have to take actions such as selling assets, selling equity, or reducing or delaying capital expenditures, strategic acquisitions, investments and joint ventures, or restructuring our debt;
as a result of the amount of our outstanding indebtedness and the restrictive covenants to which we are or may become subject, if we determine that we require additional financing to fund future working capital, capital investments, or other business activities, we may not be able to obtain such financing on commercially reasonable terms, or at all; and
our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and industry may be limited, thereby placing us at a competitive disadvantage compared with our competitors that have less indebtedness.

The base rate of our debt is determined by our credit rating. If our credit rating were to decline, interest charges on this debt would increase, which would raise the cost of borrowing and lower cash flows from operations.

Increases in interest rates and inflation could adversely affect our business and demand for our products, which would have a negative effect on our results of operations.

Our business is significantly affected by the movement of interest rates. Interest rates have increased substantially since early 2022 and remain at elevated levels. As a result, in recent periods we have experienced higher interest expense related to borrowings under our borrowing facilities. The recent rise in inflation has caused our cost of capital to increase, and the purchasing power of our cash resources to decline. Current or future efforts by the government to stimulate the economy may increase the risk of

 

 

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significant inflation, which could have a direct and indirect adverse impact on our business and results of operations. Interest rates also have a direct impact on the level of residential, commercial, and infrastructure construction activity by impacting the cost of borrowed funds to builders. Rising interest rates could result in decreased demand for our products, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

Increases in our effective income tax rate may harm our results of operations.

A number of factors may increase our future effective income tax rate, including:

governmental authorities increasing taxes or eliminating deductions, particularly the depletion deduction;
the mix of earnings from depletable versus non-depletable businesses;
the jurisdictions in which earnings are taxed;
the resolution of issues arising from tax audits with various tax authorities;
changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities;
adjustments to estimated taxes upon finalization of various tax returns;
changes in available tax credits;
changes in stock-based compensation;
other changes in tax laws; and
the interpretation of tax laws and/or administrative practices.

Any significant increase in our future effective income tax rate could reduce net earnings and free cash flow for future periods.

We depend on the recruitment and retention of qualified personnel, and our failure to attract and retain such personnel could adversely affect our businesses.

Our success depends to a significant degree upon the continued services of, and on our ability to attract and retain, our key personnel and executive officers, including qualified management, operations, technical, marketing and sales, and support personnel. Competition for such personnel is intense, and we may not be successful in attracting or retaining such qualified personnel, which could negatively affect our businesses. In addition, because we rely on our senior management team to set and implement business strategy, the unanticipated departure of any key member could have an adverse effect on our business. Our future success depends, in part, on our ability to identify and develop or recruit talent to succeed our senior management and other key positions throughout the organization. If we fail to identify and develop or recruit successors, we are at risk of being harmed by the departures of these key employees. Effective succession planning is also important to our long-term success. Failure to ensure effective transfer of knowledge and smooth transitions involving key employees could hinder our strategic planning and execution.

Disruption of our business operations due to disputes with organized labor.

Approximately half of our hourly employees are covered by collective bargaining agreements. Labor is a meaningful component in our ability to operate our business and can have a significant impact on the cost of operating our business. Labor shortages could restrict our ability to operate our business and increase costs to operate our business. Additionally, disputes with trade unions or the inability to renew our labor agreements may lead to work stoppages or strikes that could disrupt our business operations and lead to higher costs and/or reduced revenue and operating earnings.

 

 

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GROWTH RISK FACTORS AND FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

We may pursue acquisitions, joint ventures, and other transactions that are intended to complement or expand our businesses. We may not be able to complete proposed transactions, and even if completed, the transactions may involve a number of risks that may result in a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, operating results, and cash flows.

As business conditions warrant and our financial resources permit, we may pursue opportunities to acquire businesses or technologies and to form joint ventures that we believe could complement, enhance, or expand our current businesses or product lines or that might otherwise offer us growth opportunities. We may have difficulty identifying appropriate opportunities, or if we do identify opportunities, we may not be successful in completing transactions for a number of reasons. Any transactions that we are able to identify and complete may involve one or more of a number of risks, including:

the diversion of management’s attention from our existing businesses to integrate the operations and personnel of the acquired business or joint venture;
possible adverse effects on our operating results during the integration process;
failure of the acquired business or joint venture to achieve expected operational, profitability, and investment return objectives;
the incurrence of significant charges, such as impairment of goodwill or intangible assets, asset devaluation, or restructuring charges;
the assumption of unanticipated liabilities and costs for which indemnification is unavailable or inadequate;
unforeseen difficulties encountered in operating in new geographic areas; and
the inability to achieve other intended objectives of the transaction.

In addition, we may not be able to successfully or profitably integrate, operate, maintain, and manage our newly acquired operations or their employees. We may not be able to maintain uniform standards, controls, procedures, and policies, which may lead to operational inefficiencies. In addition, future acquisitions may result in dilutive issuances of equity securities or the incurrence of additional indebtedness.

Our Cement business has grown largely through acquisitions, and there is no assurance that we will be able to continue to acquire cement plans to support future growth.

In prior years, we have been able to increase the size and scope of our Cement business in large part through acquisitions of cement plants from third parties. There are a limited number of companies operating cement plants in the United States, and plants typically become available for purchase only infrequently, such as in connection with a merger, acquisition, or corporate reorganization, or refinancing. When cement plants become available for purchase, the purchase process is often highly competitive, which tends to result in relatively high valuations for the plants offered for sale. There can be no assurance that we will be able to continue to identify appropriate acquisition candidates or acquire cement plants at values that we regard as reasonable.

We may pursue new business opportunities and, if we do so, these opportunities will be subject to the risks typically associated with the early stages of business development or product line expansion.

We may from time to time pursue opportunities which are natural extensions of our existing core businesses, and which allow us to leverage our core competencies, existing infrastructure, and customer relationships. Our likelihood of success in pursuing and realizing these opportunities must be considered in light of the expenses, difficulties, and delays frequently encountered in connection with the early

 

 

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phases of business development or product line expansion, including the difficulties involved in obtaining permits; planning and constructing new facilities; transporting and storing products; establishing, maintaining, or expanding customer relationships; as well as navigating the regulatory environment in which we operate. There can be no assurance that we will be successful in the pursuit and realization of these opportunities.

This report includes various forward-looking statements, which are not facts or guarantees of future performance and which are subject to significant risks and uncertainties.

This report and other materials we have filed or will file with the SEC, as well as information included in oral statements or other written statements made or to be made by us contain or may contain forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act, Section 21E of the Exchange Act of 1934 (the Exchange Act), and the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. You can identify these statements by the fact that they do not relate to matters of a strictly factual or historical nature and generally discuss or relate to forecasts, estimates, or other expectations regarding future events. Generally, the words “believe,” “expect,” “intend,” “estimate,” “anticipate,” “project,” “may,” “can,” “could,” “might,” “will,” and similar expressions identify forward-looking statements, including statements related to expected operating and performing results, planned transactions, plans, and objectives of management, future developments, or conditions in the industries in which we participate, including future prices for our products, audits, and legal proceedings to which we are a party, and other trends, developments, and uncertainties that may affect our business in the future.

Forward-looking statements are not historical facts or guarantees of future performance but instead represent only our beliefs at the time the statements were made regarding future events, which are subject to significant risks, uncertainties, and other factors, many of which are outside of our control. Any or all of the forward-looking statements made by us may turn out to be materially inaccurate. This can occur as a result of incorrect assumptions, changes in facts and circumstances, or the effects of known risks and uncertainties. Many of the risks and uncertainties mentioned in this report or other reports filed by us with the SEC, including those discussed in the risk factor section of this report, will be important in determining whether these forward-looking statements prove to be accurate. Consequently, neither our stockholders nor any other person should place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements and should recognize that actual results may differ materially from those that may be anticipated by us.

All forward-looking statements made in this report are made as of the date hereof, and the risk that actual results will differ materially from expectations expressed in this report will increase with the passage of time. We undertake no obligation, and disclaim any duty, to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events, changes in our expectations, or otherwise.

 

 

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ITEM 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

There are no unresolved Staff comments.

ITEM 1C. Cybersecurity

RISK MANAGEMENT AND STRATEGY

The Company continues to make cybersecurity a priority as the threat landscape evolves and becomes increasingly complex and sophisticated.

Managing Material Risks & Integrated Overall Risk Management

The Company has strategically integrated cybersecurity risk management into its broader risk management framework to promote a company-wide culture of cyber risk awareness. Our Director of Information Security (DIS), under the direction of our Director of Information Technology (DIT) continuously evaluates and addresses cyber risks in alignment with business objectives, operational needs and industry-accepted standards, such as National Institute of Standards and Technology frameworks.

The Company has processes and procedures in place to monitor the prevention, detection, mitigation, and remediation of cybersecurity risks. These include but are not limited to:

Maintaining a defined and practiced incident response plan;
Maintaining cyber insurance coverage;
Employing appropriate incident prevention and detection safeguards;
Maintaining defined disaster recovery procedure and employing disaster recovery software, where appropriate;
Educating, training and testing our user community on information security practices and identification of potential cybersecurity risks and threats; and
Reviewing and evaluating new developments in the cyber threat landscape.

Engaging Third Parties on Risk Management

Recognizing the complexity and evolving nature of cybersecurity risk, we engage with a range of external security support providers, including cybersecurity consultants, in evaluating, monitoring, and testing our cyber management systems and related cyber risks. The Company’s collaboration with these third parties includes threat and vulnerability assessments, incident response plan testing, company-wide monitoring of cybersecurity risks, and consultation on security enhancements.

Managing Third-Party Risk

We recognize the risks associated with the use of vendors, service providers, and other third parties that provide information system services to us, process information on our behalf, or have access to our information systems, and the Company has processes in place to oversee and manage these risks. We conduct thorough security assessments of these third-party engagements and maintain ongoing monitoring to ensure compliance with our cybersecurity standards. This monitoring includes both annual and ongoing assessments.

Risks from Cybersecurity Incidents

To our knowledge, the Company has not been subject to cybersecurity incidents that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company, its operations, or financial standing.

 

 

 

41


 

GOVERNANCE

Risk Management Personnel

The Company’s cybersecurity risk management program is overseen by management at multiple levels. Under the direction of our DIT, the DIS plays a key role in assessing, monitoring and managing the Company’s cybersecurity risks with the support of Company management, external cybersecurity consultants, as well as dedicated information technology and security personnel. Our DIS has 38 years of IT experience, 33 years of which are specializing in cybersecurity practices. Our DIS holds numerous certifications including as an ISC2, Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP), and ISACA Certified Information Security Manager (CISM). Our DIS also has extensive experience in architecting, implementing, and managing cyber security control systems including vulnerability management, endpoint detection and response (EDR), security information and event management (SIEM), email fraud defense, and identity access management (IAM) solutions.

Monitor Cybersecurity Incidents

Our DIT is continually informed and updated on the latest developments in cybersecurity, including emerging threats and innovative risk management techniques. Our DIT, supported by our DIS, implements and oversees processes for the regular monitoring of our information systems. This includes the deployment of advanced security measures and regular system audits to identify potential vulnerabilities. In the event of a cybersecurity incident, the Company is equipped with a defined and practiced incident response plan, which details immediate actions to mitigate the impact and long-term strategies for remediation and prevention of future incidents.

Board of Directors Oversight

The Audit Committee of the Company’s Board is responsible for overseeing the Company’s cyber risk. Based on details provided by the DIT and DIS, the Chief Financial Officer (CFO) provides the Audit Committee quarterly updates that encompass a broad range of topics, including:

Current cybersecurity threat landscape and emerging threats;
Status of ongoing cybersecurity initiatives and strategies;
Incident reports and learnings from unique cybersecurity events, including those of other companies; and
Compliance status and efforts with regulatory requirements and industry standards.

In addition, the CFO provides updates to the full Board upon request, and timely updates regarding unique developments such as regulatory updates or vulnerability developments, based on details provided by the DIT and DIS.

 

 

 

 

42


 

ITEM 2. Properties

Our operating facilities span the U.S. They include cement plants, quarries, and related facilities; concrete and aggregates plants and quarries; gypsum wallboard plants; and a recycled paperboard mill; as well as distribution terminals and our headquarters in Dallas, Texas. All of our facilities are owned, with the exception of our headquarters in Dallas, which is leased through May 2029, and certain terminals, as discussed on page 12. None of our facilities are pledged as security for any debts. Please see the Industry Segment Information section on pages 6-25 for more information about the location of our facilities, and a summary of mineral reserves for each of our applicable businesses.

The following map shows the locations of our operating facilities at March 31, 2024, by type of facility. Quarries supporting our Cement, Aggregates, and Gypsum Wallboard businesses are in close proximity to the respective plants.

 

https://cdn.kscope.io/0baa0e6f3a12651565dffbf3daa2bdcc-img31364689_2.jpg 

 

 

 

 

43


 

From time to time we have been and may in the future become involved in litigation or other legal proceedings in the ordinary course of our business activities or in connection with transactions or activities undertaken by us, including claims related to worker safety, worker health, environmental matters, land use rights, taxes, and permits. While the outcome of these proceedings cannot be predicted with certainty, in the opinion of management (based on currently available facts), we do not believe that the ultimate outcome of any currently pending legal proceeding will have a material effect on our consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or liquidity.

Please refer to Item 1. Business – Industry Segment Information, for information regarding certain legal proceedings relating to the disapproval by the EPA in February 2023 of SIPs for the States of Nevada, Oklahoma, and Texas, which addressed the obligations of such states to eliminate significant contributions to non-attainment, or interference with maintenance, of the 2015 ozone NAAQS in other states. In response to the disapproval of the SIPs for such states, both such states and we have commenced litigation against the EPA. The litigation commenced by us was filed in April 2023 in the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals, the Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals, and the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals. We are unable to predict the likely outcome of these actions.

For additional information regarding claims and other contingent liabilities to which we may be subject, see Footnote (J) in the Audited Consolidated Financial Statements.

ITEM 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

Information concerning mine safety violations or other regulatory matters required by Section 1503(a) of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act and Item 104 of Regulation S-K is included in Exhibit 95 to this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

 

 

44


 

PART II

ITEM 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Stock Prices and Dividends

As of May 17, 2024, there were approximately 1,050 holders of record of our Common Stock which trades on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol EXP. See Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Dividends for details on our dividend policy.

SHARE REPURCHASES

On May 17, 2022, the Board authorized us to repurchase an additional 7,500,000 shares. Including this latest authorization, our Board has approved the repurchase in the open market of a cumulative total of approximately 55.9 million shares of our Common Stock since we became publicly held in April 1994.

During fiscal years 2024, 2023 and 2022, we repurchased 1,863,534, 3,075,788 and 3,982,657 shares, respectively, at average prices of $184.21, $126.05 and $148.08, respectively. We have repurchased approximately 50.0 million shares from April 1994 through March 31, 2024. As a result, we have a total of approximately 5.9 million shares that remain available for repurchase as authorized by our Board. The Board did not specify an expiration date for its authorizations.

Share repurchases may be made from time to time in the open market or in privately negotiated transactions. The timing and amount of any repurchases of shares will be determined by the Company’s management, based on its evaluation of market and economic conditions and other factors. In some cases, repurchases may be made pursuant to plans, programs, or directions established occasionally by the Company’s management, including plans to comply with the safe harbor provided by Rule 10b5-1.

The Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 added a provision imposing a 1% excise tax on the fair value of stock repurchases by companies beginning January 1, 2023. We do not expect taxes due on future repurchases of our shares to have a material effect on our business.

Purchases of the Company's common stock during the quarter ended March 31, 2024, were as follows:

Period

 

Total Number of
Shares Purchased

 

 

Average Price Paid
Per Share

 

 

Total Number of
Shares Purchased
as Part of Publicly
Announced Plans
or Programs

 

 

Maximum Number
of Shares that May
Yet be Purchased
Under the Plans
or Programs

 

January 1 through January 31, 2024

 

 

50,534

 

 

$

206.95

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

February 1 through February 29, 2024

 

 

178,000

 

 

 

240.73

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

March 1 through March 31, 2024

 

 

160,000

 

 

 

256.96

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Quarter 4 Totals

 

 

388,534

 

 

$

243.02

 

 

 

 

 

 

5,883,670

 

We did not have any sales of unregistered equity securities during fiscal years 2024, 2023, or 2022.

The Equity Compensation Plan information set forth in Part III, Item 12 of this Form 10-K is hereby incorporated by reference into this Part II, Item 5.

 

 

 

 

45


 

PERFORMANCE GRAPH

The following performance graph and related information shall not be deemed soliciting material or to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, nor shall such information be incorporated by reference into any future filing under the Securities Act or the Securities Exchange Act, each as amended, except to the extent that the Company specifically incorporates it by reference into such filing.

The graph below compares the cumulative 5-year total return to holders of Eagle Materials Inc. common stock with the cumulative total returns of the Russell 1000 index and the Dow Jones U.S. Building Materials & Fixtures index. The graph assumes that the value of the investment (including the reinvestment of dividends) in the Company’s common stock and in each of the indices was $100 on March 31, 2019, and tracks it through March 31, 2024.

 

https://cdn.kscope.io/0baa0e6f3a12651565dffbf3daa2bdcc-img31364689_3.jpg 

 

 

 

3/19

 

 

3/20

 

 

3/21

 

 

3/22

 

 

3/23

 

 

3/24

 

Eagle Materials Inc.

 

 

100.00

 

 

 

69.62

 

 

 

160.41

 

 

 

154.28

 

 

 

177.79

 

 

 

330.92

 

Russell 1000

 

 

100.00

 

 

 

91.97

 

 

 

147.70

 

 

 

167.30

 

 

 

153.26

 

 

 

199.03

 

Dow Jones U.S. Building Materials & Fixtures

 

 

100.00

 

 

 

91.96

 

 

 

178.65