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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-K

 

ANNUAL REPORT

Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

For the Fiscal Year Ended

March 31, 2021

Commission File No. 1-12984

 

EAGLE MATERIALS INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Delaware (State of Incorporation)

75-2520779  (I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

5960 Berkshire Lane, Suite 900, Dallas, Texas 75225 (Address of principal executive offices)

(214) 432-2000 (Registrant’s telephone number)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class

 

Trading

Symbol(s)

 

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock (par value $.01 per share)

 

EXP

 

New York Stock Exchange

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.   YES        NO

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.   YES      NO

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.      YES      NO

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit such files). YES       NO

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or emerging growth company. See definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer                                                                                                                        Accelerated filer     

Non-accelerated filer                                                                                                          Smaller reporting company

Emerging growth company  

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.    

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.    

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). YES      NO

The aggregate market value of the voting stock held by nonaffiliates of the Company at September 30, 2020 (the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter) was approximately $3.6 billion.

As of May 18, 2021, the number of outstanding shares of common stock was:

 

Class

 

Outstanding Shares

Common Stock, $.01 Par Value

 

42,380,309

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Stockholders of Eagle Materials Inc. to be held on August 3, 2021 are incorporated by reference in Part III of this Report.

 


 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

 

 

PAGE

 

 

 

PART I

 

 

 

 

 

Item 1.

 

Business

 

1

 

 

Overview

 

1

 

 

Fiscal 2021 Highlights

 

4

 

 

Human Capital

 

5

 

 

Industry Segment Information

 

5

 

 

Where You Can Find More Information

 

19

Item 1A.

 

Risk Factors

 

20

Item 1B.

 

Unresolved Staff Comments

 

32

Item 2.

 

Properties

 

32

Item 3.

 

Legal Proceedings

 

33

Item 4.

 

Mine Safety Disclosures

 

33

 

 

 

PART II

 

 

 

 

 

Item 5.

 

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters, and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

34

Item 6.

 

Selected Financial Data

 

36

Item 7.

 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

36

Item 7A.

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

54

Item 8.

 

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

 

55

Item 9.

 

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

 

114

Item 9A.

 

Controls and Procedures

 

114

Item 9B.

 

Other Information

 

116

 

 

 

PART III

 

 

 

 

 

Item 10.

 

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

 

117

Item 11.

 

Executive Compensation

 

117

Item 12.

 

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

 

117

Item 13.

 

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

 

118

Item 14.

 

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

 

118

 

 

 

PART IV

 

 

 

 

 

Item 15.

 

Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

 

119

 

 

 

 

 

INDEX TO EXHIBITS

 

120

 

 

 

SIGNATURES

 

126

 


PART I

ITEM 1. Business

Overview

Eagle Materials Inc., through its subsidiaries, (the Company, which may be referred to as we, our, or us) is a leading supplier of heavy construction materials and light building materials in the United States. Our primary products are commodities that are essential in commercial and residential construction; public construction projects; and projects to build, expand, and repair roads and highways. Demand for our products is generally cyclical and seasonal, depending on economic and geographic conditions. We distribute our products across many United States markets, which provides us with regional economic diversification.

The Company was founded in 1963 as a building materials subsidiary of Centex Corporation (Centex). It operated as a public company under the name Centex Construction Products, Inc. from April 19, 1994 to January 30, 2004, at which time Centex completed a tax-free distribution of its shares to its shareholders, and the Company was renamed Eagle Materials Inc. (NYSE: EXP).

We benefit from several competitive strengths that have enabled us to deliver consistently strong operating results and profitable growth. These advantages include:

Integrated plant network with a broad and diversified geographic reach - our plants are located near both raw material reserves and customers in high-growth U.S. markets, providing geographical diversification which reduces exposure to individual regional construction cycles;

Low-cost producer position - which we maintain through cycles;

Production flexibility - enabling us to operate at high utilization levels generally, quickly position for downturns, and efficiently ramp up for demand rebounds;

Substantial raw material reserves - between 25 to 50 years of primary raw-material reserves for each of our cement and wallboard facilities, providing certainty of supply and cost of our primary raw materials; and

Proven management - our current management team has significant and valuable experience, with an average industry experience of more than 20 years, spanning several business cycles. Management’s conservative balance sheet strategy focuses on maintaining prudent levels of leverage and liquidity through the business cycle, to protect the balance sheet through downturns and enable us to take advantage of growth opportunities, whether organic or through acquisitions.

These strengths form the basis of the Company’s strategy to protect and advance its competitive position and continue to deliver profitable growth.


 

 

 

1

 


 

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS

Decision to Remain a Combined Company

In 2019, the Company conducted a strategic portfolio review and, upon completion of this review, announced plans to separate its Heavy Materials and Light Materials businesses into two independent, publicly traded corporations by means of a tax-free spin-off to Eagle shareholders. The planned separation was subsequently delayed due to, among other things, the COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting adverse market conditions.

On May 19, 2021, we announced that our Board of Directors had decided not to pursue the proposed separation of the Heavy Materials and Light Materials business at this time. This decision was informed by a consideration of some of the key benefits associated with remaining a combined company. First, the Board of Directors viewed the size and financial strength of the combined Company, with its diversified asset base, geographic diversity and robust balance sheet, as having provided significant comfort, stability and value to our shareholders, employees, customers and suppliers during the time of the pandemic. Second, the Board concluded that, in light of the continued consolidation of the industries in which we participate and the Company’s continued rigorous examination of a number of strategic alternatives since the announcement of the proposed separation, a combined company with greater financial scale and flexibility would be better positioned to pursue key strategic growth options and enhance shareholder value. Third, since the announcement of the proposed separation, the Company has streamlined its business portfolio, including the divestiture of its Oil and Gas Proppants business and other non-core assets. The Board of Directors will continue to evaluate the merits of a separation on a periodic basis, as part of its consideration of strategic alternatives and opportunities to create long-term shareholder value.

Strategy

We rigorously pursue four overarching strategic objectives that consistently differentiate us from our competitors and contribute to our margin performance and growth: being a low-cost producer in all our markets, maintaining a decentralized operating structure, operating solely in the United States in regionally diverse and attractive markets, and achieving profitable growth through both strategic acquisitions and the organic development of our asset network.

Continuously innovate to advance our low-cost producer position

Our goal and the bedrock of our strategy is to be a low-cost producer in each of the markets in which we compete. We have right-sized capacity to service the markets we cover, and we focus diligently on reducing costs and making our operations more efficient to manage free cash flow though the economic cycle. Maintaining our low-cost position provides meaningful competitive, financial, and environmental benefits. The products we make are basic necessities and competition is often based largely on price, with consistent quality and customer service also being important considerations. Thus, being a low-cost producer is a competitive advantage and can lead to higher margins, better returns and stronger free cash flow generation. Being a low-cost producer is not only key to our commercial success, it also fully aligns with and advances our commitment to sustainable environmental practices. To maintain our low-cost producer position, we are always innovating our production processes with the aim of using fewer resources to make the same products. We regularly invest in technologies at our facilities to control emissions and to modify the fuels that we burn.

 

 

2


 

Maintain a decentralized operating structure

The Company operates through a decentralized structure: operations are managed separately, and products are branded and marketed by our individual companies. This regional-market strategy provides several benefits, including increased familiarity with our customers, higher brand recognition, and lower transportation costs, which is a meaningful advantage in the construction materials industry. We view our cement plant system and our wallboard plant system as discrete integrated networks, allowing us to ship products and minimize freight costs. The impact of regional construction cycles on our businesses is mitigated to some degree by our geographic diversification and integrated network of plants.

Operate in regionally diverse and attractive markets

Demand for our products depends on construction activity which tends to correlate with population growth. While the Company’s markets include most of the United States, approximately 70% of our total revenue is generated in ten states: Colorado, Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, Ohio, Oklahoma, and Texas. Population growth, which is a major driver of construction products and building materials demand, is expected to grow approximately 17% between the 2010 census and 2040 for these ten states, compared with 14% population growth for the United States as a whole, according to the latest update in December 2019 by Moody’s Analytics. In our Light Materials sector, we have located operations primarily in the southern part of the United States, known as the Sun Belt. According to the same study, population in the Sun Belt is expected to grow by approximately 26% between the 2010 census and 2040.

Achieve profitable growth through acquisition and organic development

We seek to grow the Company through acquisitions and the organic development of our asset network. Since 2012, we have expanded the Heavy Materials sector principally through acquisitions, with total investments of approximately $2.0 billion, including our most recent purchase of Kosmos Cement Company in March 2020. These investments have more than doubled our U.S. cement capacity, making us the largest independent U.S. cement producer.

These acquisitions have expanded our geographic footprint so that we now have a contiguous, integrated cement system from California to western Pennsylvania and south to Texas. We have completed additional bolt-on acquisitions, which also contribute to our expanded geographic footprint. 

The Company will continue to proactively pursue acquisition opportunities. Our free cash flow and balance sheet strength enable us to consider acquisitions and organic growth opportunities that align with our return on investment profitability objectives.

Capital Allocation Priorities

Our capital allocation priorities are intended to enhance shareholder value and are as follows: 1. Growth investments that meet our financial return standards and are consistent with our strategic focus; 2. Operating capital investments to maintain and strengthen our low-cost producer positions; and 3. Return of excess cash to shareholders, primarily through our share repurchase program. Since becoming a public company in 1994, our share count is down approximately 40% and we have returned approximately $2.1 billion to our shareholders, through a combination of share repurchases and dividends.


 

 

3


 

FISCAL 2021 EVENTS

Financial Highlights

Fiscal 2021 was a strong year for the Company, despite the COVID-19 pandemic and uncertainty around the economic impact of COVID related business shutdowns. The following are some of the Company’s highlights for fiscal 2021 compared with fiscal 2020:

 

Record Revenue of $1,622.6 million, up 16%. Organic revenue (does not include effect of the acquisitions and dispositions discussed below) up 5%.

 

Net Income from Continuing Operations increased 45% to $334.2 million.

 

Cement and Gypsum Wallboard Sales Volume increased 26% and 6%, respectively.

 

Cash flows from operations increased by 61% to $643.1 million, enabling us to repay $560.0 million of debt during the year and increase our cash position.

The Company also completed the integration of Kosmos Cement Company and divested certain non-core businesses during the year, as described below.

Integration of Kosmos Cement Company

On March 6, 2020, we acquired the assets of Kosmos Cement Company (Kosmos), a joint venture between CEMEX S.A.B. de C.V. and Buzzi Unicem S.p.A. for approximately $669 million. The acquisition included a (i) cement plant located in Louisville, Kentucky; (ii) a limestone quarry located in Battletown, Kentucky; (iii) cement distribution terminals located in Indianapolis, Indiana; Cincinnati, Ohio; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Charleston, West Virginia; Ceredo, West Virginia; Mt. Vernon, Indiana; and Lexington, Kentucky; and (iv) certain other properties and assets used by Kosmos in connection with the foregoing (collectively, the Kosmos Business). The integration of Kosmos into our cement business was largely completed by the end of the first quarter of fiscal 2021.

See Footnote (B) to the Audited Consolidated Financial Statements for more information regarding the acquisition of Kosmos.

Divestitures

On April 17, 2020, we sold our Western Aggregates and Mathews Readymix operations for $93.5 million to Teichert, Inc., a California-based construction company. These operations were included in our Concrete and Aggregates segment, and were considered non-core assets as they did not provide essential support to our primary cement plant network.

On May 30, 2019, we announced we were actively pursuing alternatives for our Oil and Gas Proppants business. On September 18, 2020, we sold this business to Smart Sand, Inc. for approximately $2.0 million, which was paid in Smart Sand common stock. The sale excluded certain assets, namely real property and equipment in south Texas, real property in Illinois, and certain other assets. After giving effect to the sale to Smart Sand, Inc., we are no longer engaged in the business of producing and selling sand used in hydraulic fracturing.

See Footnote (C) to the Audited Consolidated Financial Statements for more information regarding the above divestitures.

 

 

4


 

HUMAN CAPITAL

As of March 31, 2021, the Company had approximately 2,200 employees, of which approximately 650 are salaried and approximately 1,550 are hourly. Approximately 700 of the hourly employees are employed under collective bargaining agreements and various supplemental agreements with local unions.

Recruiting, developing, and retaining qualified employees is essential to implement our strategy and maintain our low-cost position. All of our employees are provided with the training necessary to safely and effectively perform their responsibilities. The health and safety of our employees is the highest priority of management. In all our businesses we have implemented initiatives to improve safety in the workplace. We hold an annual safety conference in the fall of each year, during which we discuss a variety of topics, including training programs; sharing of best practices; and maintaining focus on leading indicators, such as near-miss reporting, root cause analysis of all lost-time injuries, and sharing and discussing incidents that occurred during the past year. We also invite outside parties to assist in identifying potential safety trends and ways to mitigate identified risks. Management reviews a variety of safety metrics, including leading and lagging indicators, and updates are provided to corporate management by the business units monthly throughout the year.

The COVID-19 pandemic created a unique challenge to our business and industry.  We were designated an essential business in most of our locations, enabling us to continue production throughout the pandemic. We implemented enhanced health and safety protocols to safeguard our employees, as well as our customers and suppliers, both at our plants and third-party sites. Some of these health and safety protocols consisted of restricting access to our facilities to employees only, limiting travel between facilities by Company personnel to essential travel only, dividing the workforce at each location to ensure that any outbreak would not affect the entire workforce, staggering the timing of annual outages to ensure that only two cement plants were down at any one time, providing employees with up-to-date information about COVID-19 hot spots; and requiring self-quarantine for any employees who were possibly exposed to COVID-19. Despite the declining infection rates, we are continuing to focus on limiting possible future cases.

Industry Segment Information

Our business is organized into two sectors: Heavy Materials, which includes the Cement and Concrete and Aggregates segments; and Light Materials, which includes the Gypsum Wallboard and Recycled Paperboard segments. The primary end market for our Cement segment is infrastructure, while the primary end market for our Concrete and Aggregates segment is infrastructure, and both residential and commercial construction. The primary end market for our Gypsum Wallboard and Recycled Paperboard segments is residential construction.

For information about the financial results of our business segments, including revenue, average net sales prices, sales volume and operating earnings, please see Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.


 

 

5


 

Heavy Materials

Our Heavy Materials sector provides cement and concrete and aggregates for use in infrastructure, commercial, and residential construction. This sector comprises the Cement and Concrete and Aggregates segments. Demand has been strong for these construction products over the last several years. Cement consumption in the United States, as estimated by the Portland Cement Association (PCA), was approximately 112.1 million short tons in calendar 2020, compared with 109.8 million short tons in calendar 2019, and imported cement consumption was 17% of total sales in calendar 2020 compared with 16% in calendar 2019.

Cement

Cement is the basic binding agent for concrete, a primary construction material. The principal sources of demand for cement are public infrastructure, commercial construction, and residential construction, with public infrastructure accounting for nearly 50% of cement demand. Because of its low-value-to-weight ratio, the relative cost of transporting cement on land is high and limits the geographic area in which each producer can market its products profitably. Management believes shipments by truck are generally limited to a 150-mile radius from each plant up to 300 miles by rail, and further by barge. Therefore, the U.S. cement industry comprises numerous regional markets rather than a single national market. Cement consumption is affected by the time of year and prevalent weather conditions. Cement sales are generally greatest from spring through the middle of autumn.

The manufacturing process for portland cement primarily involves four main steps, as shown in the graphic below:

 

We also produce and market other cementitious products, including slag cement and fly ash. Slag granules are obtained from a steel company and ground in our grinding facility. Slag is used in concrete mix designs to improve the durability of concrete and reduce future maintenance costs. Fly ash is a by-product of a coal-fired power plant and acts as an extender of cement in concrete.

Cement Plants

We operate eight modern cement plants (one of which is operated through a joint venture), and one slag grinding facility. Our clinker capacity is approximately 6.7 million tons, which is approximately 6% of total U.S. clinker capacity (clinker is the intermediary product before it is ground into cement powder). All of our cement plants use dry-process technology, and approximately 80% of our clinker capacity is produced from preheater or preheater/pre-calciner kilns, which are generally more energy-efficient kiln types. In addition to production facilities, we also operate 29 cement storage and distribution terminals.

Our cement companies focus on the U.S. heartland and operate as an integrated network selling product mainly in Colorado, Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky, Indiana, Iowa, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, Ohio, Oklahoma, and Texas. Our joint venture includes a minority interest in an import terminal in Houston, Texas, from which we can purchase up to 495,000 short tons annually. Our slag facility is located near Chicago, Illinois and has 500,000 tons annual grinding capacity.

 

 

6


 

The following table sets forth information regarding our cement plants at March 31, 2021 (tons are in thousands of short tons):

 

Plant Location

 

Rated Annual

Clinker

Capacity (1)

 

 

Annual

Grinding

Capacity

 

 

Manufacturing

Process

 

Number

of Kilns

 

Kiln

Dedication

Date

 

Owned or

Leased

Reserves

 

Estimated

Minimum

Limestone

Reserves (2)

 

 

Estimated

Minimum

Limestone

Reserves

(Years) (3)

 

 

Fiscal

2021

Tons

Mined

 

Buda, TX

 

 

1,300

 

(4)

 

1,435

 

 

Dry – 4 Stage Preheater/

Pre-calciner

 

1

 

1983

 

Owned

 

 

207,800

 

 

50+

 

 

 

1,550

 

LaSalle, IL

 

 

1,000

 

 

 

1,100

 

 

Dry – 5 Stage Preheater/Pre-calciner

 

1

 

2006

 

Owned

 

 

42,300

 

 

 

37

 

 

 

1,230

 

Sugar Creek, MO

 

 

1,000

 

 

 

1,300

 

 

Dry – 5 Stage Preheater/Pre-calciner

 

1

 

2002

 

Owned

 

 

122,330

 

 

50+

 

 

 

1,100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Leased

 

 

4,400

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Laramie, WY

 

 

650

 

 

 

800

 

 

Dry – 2 Stage Preheater

 

1

 

1988

 

Owned

 

 

98,000

 

 

50+

 

 

 

1,085

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dry – Long Dry Kiln

 

1

 

1996

 

Leased

 

 

102,850

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tulsa, OK

 

 

600

 

 

 

900

 

 

Dry – Long Dry Kiln

 

1

 

1961

 

Owned

 

 

36,960

 

 

 

42

 

 

 

910

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dry Long Dry Kiln

 

1

 

1964

 

Leased

 

 

4,190

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fernley, NV

 

 

500

 

 

 

550

 

 

Dry – Long Dry Kiln

 

1

 

1964

 

Owned

 

 

13,950

 

 

50+

 

 

 

480

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dry – 1 Stage Preheater

 

1

 

1969

 

Leased

 

 

68,200

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Louisville, KY

 

 

1,550

 

 

 

1,800

 

 

Dry - 4 Stage Preheater/Pre-calciner

 

1

 

1999

 

Owned

 

 

112,000

 

 

50+

 

 

 

1,965

 

Fairborn, OH

 

 

730

 

 

 

980

 

 

Dry – 4 Stage Preheater

 

1

 

1974

 

Owned

 

 

23,910

 

 

 

28

 

 

 

960

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Leased

 

 

3,980

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total-Gross

 

 

7,330

 

 

 

8,865

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total-Net (5)

 

 

6,680

 

 

 

8,150

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(1)

One short ton equals 2,000 pounds.

(2)

All limestone reserves are considered to be probable under the definition provided by Industry Guide 7.

(3)

Years of limestone reserves calculated using annual rated capacity.

(4)

The amount shown represents 100% of plant capacity. This plant is owned by a separate limited partnership in which the Company has a 50% interest.

(5)

Net of partner’s 50% interest in the Buda, Texas plant.

All of our cement subsidiaries are wholly owned except the Buda, Texas plant (the Joint Venture), which is owned by Texas Lehigh Cement Company LP, a limited partnership joint venture owned 50% by us, and 50% by Lehigh Cement Company LLC, a subsidiary of Heidelberg Cement AG.

Our cement production, including our 50% share of the cement Joint Venture production, totaled 6.9 million short tons in fiscal 2021 and 5.4 million short tons in fiscal 2020. Total net cement sales, including our 50% share of cement sales from the Joint Venture, were 7.5 million and 5.9 million short tons in fiscal 2021 and fiscal 2020, respectively. The increases in fiscal 2021 compared with fiscal 2020 are due primarily to the Kosmos Acquisition in March 2020.

Demand, Sales, and Distribution

The principal sources of demand for cement and slag are public infrastructure, private non-residential construction, and residential construction, with public infrastructure comprising nearly 50% of total demand. Cement consumption in the U.S. increased approximately 2% during calendar 2020 from calendar 2019, and the PCA forecasts cement consumption will increase another approximately 2% in calendar 2021. Demand for cement is seasonal, particularly in northern states where inclement winter weather often affects construction activity. Cement sales are generally greatest from spring through the middle of autumn. Demand for slag has increased as the availability of fly ash has decreased due to the reduction in the use of coal to generate power.

 

 

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Because of cement’s low value-to-weight ratio, the relative cost of transporting cement on land is high and limits the geographic area in which each company can market its products profitably. The low value-to-weight ratio generally limits shipments by truck to a 150-mile radius from each plant, up to 300 miles by rail, and further by barge. Consequently, the U.S. cement industry is made up of regional markets rather than a single national selling market. No single cement company has a distribution of plants extensive enough to serve all geographic areas, so profitability is sensitive to shifts in the balance between regional supply and demand.

Environmental and zoning regulations have made it increasingly difficult for the U.S. cement industry to expand existing facilities and to build new cement facilities. Although we cannot predict which policies will be adopted in the future by federal, state, and local governmental bodies, we anticipate that future restrictions will likely continue to make zoning and permitting of new capacity additions difficult. This could potentially enhance the value of our existing facilities. Furthermore, cost-efficient alternatives to cement are currently limited, and the availability of some alternatives is diminishing. For example, the availability of fly ash, a cement replacement, has decreased because of the retirement of coal fired power plants and the conversion of power plants from coal to natural gas and other forms of energy.

The difficulty in adding cement capacity, coupled with limited alternatives, leads to high U.S. cement manufacturing utilization rates, as well as the need for imported cement when demand levels are high.  Cement imports into the U.S. occur mostly to supplement domestic cement production or to supply a particular region. Cement is typically imported into deep water ports along the coast or on the Great Lakes, or transported on the Mississippi River system near major population centers. Our position in the U.S. heartland, away from most import terminals, insulates us from coastal imports, given the expense of transporting cement from deep water ports into the heartland regions. This geographic position further enhances the value of our plant network.  

The PCA estimates that imports represented approximately 17% of cement used in the U.S. during calendar 2020, compared with 16% in calendar 2019. The PCA also estimates that imports will increase to approximately 18% of calendar 2021 consumption. Based on the normal distribution of cement into the market, we believe that no less than approximately 5% to 10% of the total consumption will consistently be served by imported cement.

 

 

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The following table sets forth information regarding the geographic areas served by each of our cement and slag plants and the location of our distribution terminals in each area. We have 29 cement storage and distribution terminals that are strategically located to extend the sales areas of our plants.

 

Plant Location

 

Type of Plant

 

Operating Company Name

 

Principal Geographic Areas

 

Distribution Terminals (1)

Buda, Texas

 

Cement

 

Texas Lehigh Cement Company LP

 

Texas and western

Louisiana

 

Corpus Christi, Texas; Houston, Texas;

Roanoke (Fort Worth), Texas; Waco,

Texas; Houston Cement Company

(Joint Venture), Houston, Texas

LaSalle, Illinois

 

Cement

 

Illinois Cement Company

 

Illinois, Michigan and

southern Wisconsin

 

Hartland, Wisconsin; South Beloit, Illinois, (2)

Ottawa, Illinois

Sugar Creek, Missouri

 

Cement

 

Central Plains Cement Company

 

Western Missouri, eastern

Kansas, eastern Nebraska,

and Iowa

 

Sugar Creek, Missouri; Wichita, Kansas;

Omaha, Nebraska; Altoona, Iowa;

Springfield, Missouri

Tulsa, Oklahoma

 

Cement

 

Central Plains Cement Company

 

Oklahoma, western

Arkansas, and southern

Missouri

 

Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

Laramie, Wyoming

 

Cement

 

Mountain Cement Company

 

Wyoming, Utah, Colorado,

and western Nebraska

 

Salt Lake City, Utah; Denver, Colorado;

North Platte, Nebraska

Fernley, Nevada

 

Cement

 

Nevada Cement Company

 

Northern Nevada and

northern California

 

Sacramento, California

Louisville, Kentucky

 

Cement

 

Kosmos Cement Company

 

Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana, West Virginia, eastern Illinois, western Pennsylvania, and northern Tennessee

 

Indianapolis, Indiana; Ceredo, West Virginia;

Lexington, Kentucky (3); Cincinnati, Ohio;

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania;

Charleston, West Virginia;

Mount Vernon, Indiana (3)

Fairborn, Ohio

 

Cement

 

Fairborn Cement Company

 

Ohio, eastern Indiana, and

northern Kentucky

 

Columbus, Ohio

Chicago, Illinois

 

Slag

 

Skyway Cement Company

 

Illinois, Pennsylvania,

Iowa, Ohio, Minnesota,

Missouri and Kansas

 

Kansas City, Missouri; Etna, Pennsylvania;

Fairfield, Ohio (3)

(1)

Each of the above distribution terminals is capable of handling cement and/or slag.

(2)

We acquired this terminal on September 2, 2020.

(3)

This facility is being leased.

We are leasing the terminal in Fairfield, Ohio under an initial term of four years, with two one-year options, which expire in fiscal 2025. The terminal in Lexington, Kentucky is being leased under an initial term of five years and will be up for renewal in fiscal 2024. The terminal in Mt. Vernon, Indiana is leased through fiscal 2031, and contains options that will allow the renewal of this lease for an additional twenty years.

Cement and slag are distributed directly to our customers mostly through customer pickups, and also by common carriers from our plants or distribution terminals. We transport cement, slag, and fly ash by truck, barge, and rail to our storage and distribution terminals.

No single customer accounted for more than 10% of our Cement segment sales during fiscal 2021. We do not typically enter into long-term sales contracts or have a significant level of order backlog.

Raw Materials and Fuel Supplies

The principal raw material used in the production of portland cement is calcium carbonate in the form of limestone. Limestone is obtained mainly through mining and extraction operations conducted at mines and quarries that we own or lease, and that are located in close proximity to our plants. We believe the estimated recoverable limestone reserves we own or lease will permit each of our plants to operate at our present production capacity for at least 25 years. We are actively seeking additional limestone reserves close to our plants and believe we will be able to acquire more reserves in the future. Other raw materials used in substantially smaller quantities than limestone are sand, clay, iron ore, and gypsum. These

 

 

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materials are readily available and can be obtained either from Company-owned or leased reserves, or can be purchased from outside suppliers.

We utilize coal, petroleum coke, natural gas, and alternative fuels to fuel our cement plants. The cost of fuel and power increased in fiscal 2021, compared with fiscal 2020, due to higher natural gas prices during the fiscal fourth quarter. We expect the cost of fuel to remain fairly consistent in fiscal 2022. In keeping with our commitment to sustainability and cost management, we continue to expand the use of alternative fuels at our cement facilities.

We have a long-term agreement with a steel manufacturer to supply granules necessary for grinding slag. This agreement requires us to purchase up to 550,000 tons of granules, which meet certain specifications, made available by the steel manufacturer each year. Electric power is also a major cost component in the manufacturing process for both cement and slag, and we have sought to diminish overall power costs by adopting interruptible power supply agreements at certain locations. These agreements may expose us to some production interruptions during periods of power curtailment. Historically, we have not had many production interruptions under these agreements.

Environmental Matters

Our cement operations are subject to numerous federal, state, and local laws and regulations pertaining to health, safety, and the environment. Some of these laws, such as the federal Clean Air Act and the federal Clean Water Act (and analogous state laws) impose environmental-permitting requirements and govern the nature and amount of emissions that may be generated when conducting particular operations. Some laws, such as the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) (and analogous state laws) impose obligations to clean up or remediate spills of hazardous materials into the environment. Other laws require us to reclaim certain land upon completion of extraction and mining operations in our quarries. We believe that we have obtained all the material environmental permits that are necessary to conduct our operations. We further believe that we are conducting our operations in substantial compliance with these permits. In addition, none of our manufacturing sites is listed as a CERCLA Superfund site.

The following environmental issues involving the cement manufacturing industry deserve special mention.

Cement Kiln Dust – Because much of CKD is unreacted raw materials, it is often returned to the production process. Substantially all CKD produced in connection with our ongoing operations is recycled, and therefore such CKD is not viewed as a waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). However, CKD was historically collected and stored on-site at our Illinois, Nevada, Missouri, Oklahoma and Wyoming cement plants and at a former plant site in Corpus Christi, Texas, which is no longer producing cement. Currently, CKD waste is generally excluded from the definition of hazardous waste under the federal regulations. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been evaluating the regulatory status of CKD under the RCRA since 2002, and thus far has not changed its approach. If either the EPA or the states decide to reclassify or impose new management standards on this CKD at some point in the future, we could incur additional costs to comply with those requirements with respect to our historically collected CKD. CKD that comes in contact with water might produce a leachate with an alkalinity high enough to be classified as hazardous and might also leach certain hazardous trace metals therein.  

Potential Greenhouse Gas Regulation – The potential regulation of our emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs), including carbon dioxide, could affect our cement operations because (1) the cement manufacturing process requires the combustion of large amounts of fuel to generate very high kiln temperatures; and (2) the production of carbon dioxide is a byproduct of the calcination process, whereby

 

 

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carbon dioxide is removed from calcium carbonate to produce calcium oxide. Curbing GHG emissions is a clear priority for the newly elected President Biden. Further, several states have individually implemented or are presently considering measures to reduce emissions of GHGs, primarily through the planned development of GHG inventories or registries, or regional GHG cap and trade programs. It is not possible at this time to predict how any future legislation that may be enacted or final EPA regulations that may be adopted to address GHG emissions would impact our business. However, any imposition of raw materials or production limitations, fuel-use or carbon taxes, or emission limitations or reductions could have a significant impact on the cement manufacturing industry and a material adverse effect on us and our results of operations.

Solid Waste Incineration Regulations – The EPA has promulgated revised regulations for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration (CISWI) units, pursuant to Section 129 of the CAA. The EPA has approved several states’ implementation plans under this rule, including plans submitted by Colorado and Oklahoma, and has proposed a federal plan that would apply in states that have not submitted and received approval for a state plan has. Compared to the PC NESHAP, the CISWI regulations contain requirements across a broader range of pollutants, and the requirement for dioxin/furans for existing and new sources is somewhat more stringent.

Air Quality Standards for Ozone – The EPA is engaged in an ongoing review and implementation of the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for ozone. Nonattainment designations in or surrounding our areas of operations could have a material impact on our consolidated financial results. The CAA requires the EPA to review, and if necessary, revise the NAAQS every five years. Most recently, in December 2020, the Trump Administration announced its decision to retain the 2015 ozone NAAQS set by the Obama Administration without change. This December 2020 final action, however, is subject to legal challenge and is currently being reviewed by the EPA pursuant to President Biden’s executive order directing federal agencies to review certain environmental actions taken by the Trump Administration.

We believe that our current procedures and practices in our operations, including those for handling and managing hazardous materials, are consistent with industry standards and are in substantial compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations. Nevertheless, because of the complexity of our operations and the environmental laws to which we are subject, there can be no assurance that past or future operations will not result in violations, remediation costs, or other liabilities or claims. Moreover, we cannot predict what environmental laws will be enacted or adopted in the future or how such future environmental laws or regulations will be administered or interpreted. Compliance with more stringent environmental laws, or stricter interpretation of existing environmental laws, could necessitate significant capital outlays.

In fiscal 2021, we had $2.4 million of capital expenditures related to compliance with environmental regulations applicable to our cement operations. We anticipate spending $2.9 million during fiscal 2022.


 

 

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Concrete and Aggregates

Readymix concrete is a versatile, low-cost building material used in almost all construction. The production of readymix concrete involves mixing cement, sand, gravel or crushed stone, and water to form concrete, which is then sold and distributed to numerous construction contractors. Concrete is produced in batch plants and transported to customers’ job sites in mixer trucks.

The aggregates business consists of mining, extracting, producing, and selling crushed stone, sand, and gravel. Construction aggregates of suitable characteristics are employed in virtually all types of construction, including the production of readymix concrete, flexible base, and asphaltic mixes used in highway construction and maintenance.

On April 17, 2020, we sold Western Aggregates LLC and Mathews Readymix LLC, our readymix and aggregates companies in northern California for approximately $93.5 million. See Footnote (C) to the Audited Consolidated Financial Statements for more information regarding the sale.

Concrete and Aggregates Plants

We produce and distribute readymix concrete from company-owned sites in Central Texas; the greater Kansas City area; and northern Nevada. The following table sets forth information regarding these operations:

 

Location

 

Number of Plants

 

 

Number of Trucks

 

Central Texas

 

 

9

 

 

 

82

 

Kansas City Area

 

 

9

 

 

 

82

 

Northern Nevada

 

 

8

 

 

 

56

 

Total

 

 

26

 

 

 

220

 

We conduct aggregate operations near our concrete facilities. Aggregates are obtained principally by mining and extracting from quarries owned or leased by the Company. The following table sets forth certain information regarding these aggregate facilities:

 

Location

 

Types

of Aggregates

 

Estimated Annual

Production Capacity

(Thousand tons)

 

 

Owned or Leased

 

Estimated Minimum

Reserves

(Thousand Tons) (1)

 

 

 

Estimated Minimum

Reserves (Years)

 

Fiscal 2021

Tons Mined

(Thousand Tons)

 

Central Texas

 

Limestone and Gravel

 

 

2,500

 

 

Owned

 

 

4,300

 

 

 

25+

 

 

1,860

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Leased

 

 

61,500

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kansas City Area

 

Limestone

 

 

 

 

 

Owned

 

 

25,000

 

(2)

 

n/a

(3)

 

 

Northern Nevada

 

Sand and Gravel

 

 

650

 

 

Owned

 

 

20,000

 

 

 

50+

 

 

640

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Leased

 

 

25,360

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(1)  All reserves are considered to be probable under the definition of Industry Guide 7.

(2)

Includes reserves located in our underground mine that we believe can be economically used for aggregate supply.

(3)

The Company is currently not operating its aggregate facility in the Kansas City area.

Our total net aggregates sales were 2.0 million tons in fiscal 2021 and 3.3 million tons in fiscal 2020. Total aggregates production was 2.5 million tons in fiscal 2021 and 4.1 million tons in fiscal 2020. The decline in both aggregates sales and aggregates production in fiscal 2021 was primarily due to the sale of our northern California aggregates business in April 2020. Excluding Western Aggregates, our aggregates sales were 1.9 million tons in fiscal 2021 and 1.7 million tons in fiscal 2020. A portion of our total aggregates production is used internally by our readymix concrete operations in Texas and northern Nevada.

 

 

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Demand, Sales, and Distribution

Demand for readymix concrete and aggregates largely depends on local levels of construction activity. Construction activity is also subject to weather conditions, the availability of financing at reasonable rates, and overall fluctuations in local economies, and therefore tends to be cyclical. We sell readymix concrete to numerous contractors and other customers in each plant’s marketing area. Our batch plants in Central Texas, the greater Kansas City area, and northern Nevada are strategically located to serve each marketing area. Concrete is delivered from the batch plants primarily by company-owned trucks. We sell aggregates to building contractors and other customers engaged in a wide variety of construction activities. Aggregates are delivered from our plants by common carriers and customer pickup. No single customer accounted for more than 10% of fiscal 2021 segment revenue.

The concrete and aggregates industry is highly fragmented, with numerous participants operating in each local area. Because the cost of transporting concrete and aggregates is very high relative to product values, producers of concrete and aggregates typically can profitably sell their products only in areas within 50 miles of their production facilities. Barriers to entry in each industry are low, except with respect to environmental permitting requirements for new aggregates production facilities and zoning of land to permit mining and extraction of aggregates.

Raw Materials and Fuel Supplies

We obtain cement and aggregates for our concrete businesses from related companies, including our Joint Venture, as outlined below:

 

 

 

Percentage of Internally Supplied

 

Location

 

Cement

 

 

Aggregates

 

Central Texas

 

 

 

 

 

45

%

Kansas City Area

 

 

100

%

 

 

 

Northern Nevada

 

 

100

%

 

 

95

%

We obtain the balance of our cement and aggregates requirements from multiple outside sources in each of these areas.

We mine and extract limestone, sand, and gravel, the principal raw materials used in the production of aggregates, from quarries owned or leased by us and located near our plants. On average, our aggregate reserves exceed 25 years based on normalized production levels and in many cases, much greater.

Environmental Matters

The concrete and aggregates industry is subject to environmental regulations similar to those governing our Cement operations. (See pages 10-11).

In fiscal 2021, we had $0.2 million of capital expenditures related to compliance with environmental regulations applicable to our Concrete and Aggregates operations. We anticipate spending $0.5 million during fiscal 2022.


 

 

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Light Materials

Our Light Materials sector is comprised of the Gypsum Wallboard segment, which produces gypsum wallboard used in residential and commercial buildings, and the Recycled Paperboard segment, which produces paper primarily used in the manufacture of gypsum wallboard. Operations in this sector are concentrated in the Sun Belt of the United States, where the population is projected to grow approximately 26% between 2010 and 2040, according to the latest update in December 2019 by Moody’s Analytics. Population growth is a key long-term driver of demand for gypsum wallboard and recycled paperboard.

Gypsum Wallboard

 

Gypsum wallboard is used to finish the interior walls and ceilings in residential, commercial, and industrial structures. Our gypsum wallboard products are marketed under the name American Gypsum.

The gypsum wallboard manufacturing process involves four main steps, as shown in the graphic below:

 

 

Gypsum Wallboard Plants

We own and operate five gypsum wallboard plants, outlined in the table below. We anticipate running all of our facilities at the level required to meet customer demand, up to maximum capacity. Our gypsum wallboard is distributed in the geographic markets nearest to our production facilities.


 

 

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The following table sets forth certain information regarding our gypsum wallboard plants:

 

Location

 

Approximate Annual

Gypsum Wallboard

Capacity (MMSF) (1)

 

 

Owned or Leased

Reserves (2)

 

Estimated

Minimum Gypsum

Reserves

(Thousand Tons) (3)

 

 

 

Estimated

Minimum Gypsum

Reserves

(Years) (4)

 

 

 

Fiscal 2021

Tons Mined

(Thousand Tons)

 

Albuquerque, New Mexico

 

 

425

 

 

Owned

 

 

10,490

 

(5)

 

50+

 

(5)

 

 

520

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Leased

 

 

53,690

 

(5)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bernalillo, New Mexico

 

 

550

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(5)

 

50+

 

(5)

 

 

 

 

Gypsum, Colorado

 

 

700

 

 

Owned

 

 

30,100

 

 

 

 

49

 

 

 

 

500

 

Duke, Oklahoma

 

 

1,300

 

 

Owned

 

 

63,800

 

 

 

50+

 

 

 

 

405

 

Georgetown, South Carolina (6)

 

 

900

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

47

 

(6)

 

 

 

Total

 

 

3,875

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(1)

Million Square Feet (MMSF) based on anticipated product mix.

(2)

Owned reserves include mining claims.

(3)

All gypsum tons are deemed probable under the definition provided by Industry Guide 7.

(4)

At 100% capacity utilization.

(5)

The same reserves serve both New Mexico plants.

(6)

We signed a 60-year supply agreement in 2006 with Santee Cooper for synthetic gypsum that expires in 2068.

Our Gypsum Wallboard production totaled 2,907 MMSF in fiscal 2021 and 2,706 MMSF in fiscal 2020. Total Gypsum Wallboard sales were 2,857 MMSF in fiscal 2021 and 2,694 MMSF in fiscal 2020.

Demand, Sales, and Distribution

The principal sources of demand for gypsum wallboard are (i) residential construction, (ii) repair and remodeling, (iii) non-residential construction, and (iv) other markets such as manufactured housing. According to the Gypsum Association, industry shipments of gypsum wallboard were approximately 26.2 billion square feet in calendar 2020, compared to 25.9 billion square feet in calendar 2019. We estimate that residential and repair and remodel construction accounted for more than 80% of calendar 2020 industry sales.

Demand for gypsum wallboard remains highly cyclical and closely follows construction industry cycles, particularly housing construction. Demand for wallboard can be seasonal and is generally highest from spring through the middle of autumn.

We sell Gypsum Wallboard to numerous building-materials dealers, gypsum wallboard specialty distributors, lumber yards, home-center chains, and other customers located throughout the United States, with the exception of the Northeast. Gypsum wallboard is sold on a delivered basis, mostly by truck. We generally use third-party common carriers for deliveries. Three customers accounted for approximately 35% of our Gypsum Wallboard segment sales during fiscal 2021.

Although gypsum wallboard is distributed principally in local areas, certain industry producers (including the Company) have the ability to ship gypsum wallboard by rail outside their usual regional distribution areas to regions where demand is strong. Our rail distribution capabilities permit us to service customers in markets on both the east and west coasts, except for the Northeast. Less than 10% of our Wallboard volume sold during fiscal 2021 was delivered via rail.

There are currently six manufacturers of gypsum wallboard in the U.S., operating a total of 60 plants with a total of 71 lines, per the Gypsum Association. We estimate that the four largest producers ‒ Knauf, National Gypsum Company, Certainteed, and Koch Industries ‒ account for approximately 85% of gypsum wallboard sales in the U.S. Total wallboard-rated production capacity in the United States is currently estimated by the Gypsum Association at approximately 32.7 billion square feet per year.

 

 

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Raw Materials and Fuel Supplies

We mine and extract natural gypsum, the principal raw material used in the manufacture of gypsum wallboard, from quarries owned, leased, or subject to mining claims owned by the Company and located near our plants. Certain of our New Mexico reserves are under lease with the Pueblo of Zia. Gypsum ore reserves at the Gypsum, Colorado plant are contained within a total of 115 placer claims encompassing 2,300 acres. Included in this are 94 unpatented mining claims, where mineral rights can be developed upon completion of permitting requirements. We are currently in the twelfth year of a 60-year supply agreement (original 20-year term with two 20-year extension options) with a public utility in South Carolina for synthetic gypsum, which we use at our Georgetown, South Carolina plant. If the utility is unable to generate the agreed-upon amount of gypsum, it is responsible for providing gypsum from a third party to fulfill its obligations.

Through our modern low-cost paperboard mill, we manufacture sufficient quantities of paper necessary for our gypsum wallboard production. Paper is a significant cost component in the manufacture of gypsum wallboard, currently representing approximately one-third of our production cost. Paper costs are anticipated to increase in fiscal 2022, which is expected to increase our manufacturing cost. See Raw Materials and Fuel Supplies in the Recycled Paperboard section for more discussion.

Our gypsum wallboard manufacturing operations use natural gas and electrical power. A significant portion of the Company’s natural gas requirements for our gypsum wallboard plants are currently provided by three gas producers under gas-supply agreements expiring in October 2021 for Colorado, and October 2022 for South Carolina and Oklahoma. If the agreements are not renewed, we anticipate being able to obtain our gas supplies from other suppliers at competitive prices. Electrical power is supplied to our New Mexico plants at standard industrial rates by a local utility. For our Albuquerque plant, we have an interruptible power supply agreement, which may expose it to some production interruptions during periods of power curtailment. Power for our Gypsum, Colorado facility is generated at the facility by a cogeneration power plant that we own and operate. Currently, the cogeneration power facility supplies power and waste hot gases for drying to the gypsum wallboard plant. We do not sell any power to third parties. Natural gas costs represented less than 10% of our production costs in fiscal 2021.

Environmental Matters

The gypsum wallboard industry is subject to numerous federal, state, and local laws and regulations pertaining to health, safety, and the environment. Some of these laws, such as the federal Clean Air Act and the federal Clean Water Act (and analogous state laws), impose environmental permitting requirements and govern the nature and amount of emissions that may be generated when conducting particular operations. Some laws, such as CERCLA (and analogous state laws), impose obligations to clean up or remediate spills of hazardous materials into the environment. Other laws require us to reclaim certain land upon completion of extraction and mining operations in our quarries. None of our gypsum wallboard operations is the subject of any local, state, or federal environmental proceedings. We do not, and have not, used asbestos in any of our gypsum wallboard products.

On April 17, 2015, the EPA published its final rule addressing the storage, reuse, and disposal of coal combustion products, which include fly ash and flue gas desulfurization gypsum (synthetic gypsum). We use synthetic gypsum in wallboard manufactured at our Georgetown, South Carolina plant. The rule, which applies only to electric utilities and independent power producers, establishes standards for the management of coal combustion residuals (CCRs) under Subtitle D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, (RCRA), which is the Subtitle that regulates non-hazardous wastes. The rule imposes requirements addressing CCR surface impoundments and landfills, including location restrictions, design,

 

 

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and operating specifications; groundwater monitoring requirements; corrective action requirements; recordkeeping and reporting obligations; and closure requirements. Beneficial encapsulated uses of CCRs, including synthetic gypsum, are exempt from regulation. The rule became effective on October 19, 2015. Given the EPA’s decision to continue to allow CCR to be used in synthetic gypsum and to regulate CCR under the non-hazardous waste sections of RCRA, we do not expect the rule to materially affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations. Although the EPA proposed revisions to the final CCR rule in 2018, 2019, and 2020, material effects on our business, financial condition, and results of operations are unlikely because none of these proposed rules currently seek to overturn the management of CCR as non-hazardous waste or the regulatory exemption for beneficial encapsulated use of CCR.

As discussed in greater detail in the “Environmental Matters” section for Cement, the EPA in October 2015 strengthened the NAAQS for ozone by lowering the primary and secondary standards from 75 parts per billion (ppb) to 70 ppb. The EPA completed its attainment/nonattainment designations for the revised standards for all areas of the United States in July 2018. In December 2020, the Trump Administration announced its decision to retain the 2015 ozone NAAQS without change. This December 2020 final action, however, is subject to legal challenge and is currently being reviewed by the EPA pursuant to President Biden’s executive order directing federal agencies to review certain environmental actions taken by the Trump Administration. The EPA has not announced whether it plans to uphold or revise the 2020 ozone NAAQS. Consequently, if areas in or surrounding our operations obtain nonattainment designations, or if EPA chooses to revise and lower the current ozone NAAQS, our consolidated financial results may be materially impacted.

Our gypsum wallboard manufacturing process combusts natural gas. It is possible that GHG emissions from our manufacturing could become subject to regulation under the CAA as the EPA begins issuing new regulations to achieve President Biden’s GHG emission reduction goals. For a more detailed discussion of this issue, see the “Environmental Matters” section of our Cement business description on pages 10-11.

Although our Gypsum Wallboard operations could be adversely affected by federal, regional, or state climate change initiatives, at this time, it is not possible to accurately estimate how future laws or regulations addressing GHG emissions would impact our business. However, any imposition of raw materials or production limitations, fuel-use or carbon taxes, or emission limitations or reductions could have a significant impact on the gypsum wallboard manufacturing industry and a material adverse effect on the financial results of our operations.

There were $0.2 million of capital expenditures related to compliance with environmental regulations applicable to our Gypsum Wallboard operations during fiscal 2021. We anticipate capital expenditures of approximately $2.0 million related to our Gypsum Wallboard operations during fiscal 2022.

Recycled Paperboard

Our Recycled Paperboard manufacturing operation, which we refer to as Republic Paperboard Company, is located in Lawton, Oklahoma and has a technologically advanced paper machine designed primarily for gypsum liner production utilizing 100% recycled paper. The paper’s uniform cross-directional strength and finish characteristics facilitate the efficiencies of new high-speed wallboard manufacturing lines and improve the efficiencies of the slower wallboard manufacturing lines. Although the machine was designed primarily to manufacture gypsum liner products, we are also able to manufacture several alternative products, including containerboard grades and lightweight packaging grades.

Our paper machine allows the paperboard operation to manufacture high-strength gypsum liner that is approximately 10% to 15% lighter in basis weight than what is generally available in the U.S. The low-

 

 

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basis weight product utilizes less recycled fiber to produce paper that, in turn, requires less energy (natural gas) to evaporate moisture from the board during the gypsum wallboard manufacturing process. The low-basis weight paper also reduces the overall finished board weight, providing our Wallboard operations with more competitive transportation costs for both the inbound and outbound segments.

During 2020, we completed a project to enhance and expand our papermill, which has been sold out for several years. The project enabled us to increase line speeds and lower our operating costs, and increased the annual capacity at the paper mill to approximately 390,000 tons.

Demand, Sales, and Distribution

Our manufactured recycled paperboard products are sold to gypsum wallboard manufacturers and other industrial users. During fiscal 2021, approximately 40% of the recycled paperboard sold by our paper mill was consumed by the Company’s Gypsum Wallboard manufacturing operations. We have contracts with two other gypsum wallboard manufacturers that expire in the next three to four years, that represent approximately 50% of our total segment revenue, with the remaining volume shipped to other gypsum wallboard manufacturers. The loss of any of these contracts or a termination or reduction of their current production of gypsum wallboard, unless replaced by a commercially similar arrangement, could have a material adverse effect on the Company.

Raw Materials and Fuel Supplies

The principal raw materials in recycled paperboard are recycled paper fiber (recovered waste paper), water, and specialty paper chemicals. The largest waste paper source used by the operation is old cardboard containers (known as OCC). A blend of high grades (white papers consisting of ink-free papers, such as news blank and unprinted papers) is used in the gypsum liner facing paper, white top linerboard, and white bag liner grades.

We believe that an adequate supply of recycled paper fiber will continue to be available from sources located within a reasonable proximity of the paper mill. Although we have the capability to receive rail shipments, the vast majority of the recycled fiber purchased is delivered via truck. Prices are subject to market fluctuations based on generation of material (supply), demand, and the presence of the export market. Fiber pricing, on average, increased in fiscal 2021 compared with fiscal 2020. Most of the increase occurred in the fiscal first and fourth quarters, with the price declining slightly in the fiscal second and third quarters. We expect fiber prices to increase in the first quarter of fiscal 2022, then remain flat for the remainder of fiscal 2022. Current gypsum liner customer contracts include price escalators that partially offset and compensate for changes in raw material fiber prices. The chemicals used in the paper making operation, including size, retention aids, biocides, and bacteria controls, are readily available from several manufacturers at competitive prices.

The manufacture of recycled paperboard involves the use of a large volume of water in the production process. We have an agreement with the City of Lawton municipal services for supply of water to our manufacturing facility. Electricity, natural gas, and other utilities are available to us at either contracted rates or standard industrial rates in adequate supplies. These utilities are subject to standard industrial curtailment provisions.

Paperboard operations are generally large consumers of energy, mostly natural gas and electricity. Electricity is supplied to the paper mill by Public Service of Oklahoma (PSO) and they have requested a significant increase in rates for fiscal 2022. Oklahoma is a regulated state for electricity services, and all rate change requests must be presented to the Oklahoma Corporation Commission for review and approval before implementation. At this time, we are unable to estimate how much of the increase will be

 

 

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granted by the Oklahoma Corporation Commission. This power company has been moving its fuel source dependency to natural gas, which could affect our electricity rates in future years. Natural gas costs in fiscal 2021 increased compared with fiscal 2020. Natural gas costs were trending lower in fiscal 2021 until Winter Storm Uri in February 2021, when the spike in natural gas prices increased the average cost for fiscal 2021 above the average cost for fiscal 2020.

Environmental Matters

There were no capital expenditures related to compliance with environmental regulations applicable to our Recycled Paperboard operations during fiscal 2021, and none are expected in fiscal 2022.

Where You Can Find More Information

We publish our annual reports on Form 10-K and Form DEF 14A, Annual Proxy Statement; our quarterly reports on Form 10-Q; and current reports on Form 8-K. These reports along with all amendments to them, are available free of charge through the Investor Relations page of our website, located at www.eaglematerials.com as soon as reasonably practicable after they are filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). This reference to our website is intended solely to inform investors where they may obtain additional information; the materials and other information presented on our website are not incorporated in and should not otherwise be considered part of this Report. Additionally, investors may obtain information by contacting our Investor Relations department directly at (214) 432-2000 or by writing to Eagle Materials Inc., Investor Relations, 5960 Berkshire Lane, Suite 900, Dallas, Texas 75225.

 

 

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ITEM 1A. Risk Factors

The foregoing discussion of our business and operations should be read together with the risk factors set forth below. They describe various risks and uncertainties to which we are or may become subject, many of which are outside of our control. These risks and uncertainties, together with other factors described elsewhere in this Report, have affected, or may in the future affect, our business, operations, financial condition and results of operations in a material and adverse manner.

COVID-19 RISK FACTORS

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused severe disruptions in the U.S. and global economies. Although infection rates have recently improved in many areas of the United States, the extent of the impact of the pandemic continues to be highly uncertain. Accordingly, it is possible that the pandemic could have a material adverse effect on our business, operations, financial condition and results of operations.

On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization declared the outbreak of COVID-19 to be a global pandemic and recommended containment and mitigation measures worldwide. On March 13, 2020, the United States declared a national emergency arising from the COVID-19 pandemic, and many states and municipalities declared public health emergencies. Since the time of these initial declarations, international, federal, state, and local public health and governmental authorities have taken extraordinary and wide-ranging measures to contain and combat the outbreak and spread of COVID-19, including quarantines, “shelter-in-place” orders, and mandates and recommendations for individuals to substantially restrict daily activities and for many businesses to curtail or cease normal operations. Some of these measures have now been lifted or modified, but others have been extended or remain in place.

To date, we have not been materially affected by governmental orders requiring businesses to curtail or cease normal operations. Throughout the pandemic, we have been able to continue to operate as an essential business in virtually all of the markets we serve. If, however, the pandemic worsens, whether as a result of the emergence of new virus strains or additional waves of infection, it is possible that new restrictions would be adopted that could limit or restrict the scope of our operations. In general, either a worsening of the COVID-19 pandemic or the implementation of new governmental measures designed to contain its spread and mitigate its public health effects could have a negative impact on several areas affecting our business, including the following:

 

The COVID-19 pandemic could result in adverse macroeconomic conditions affecting demand for our products in the principal markets in which we operate.

 

The pandemic may have an adverse effect on state and local government revenues and construction budgets, and could result in delays, cancellations or curtailment of construction projects.

 

The pandemic could result in delays in collecting on certain of our accounts receivable from certain of our customers.

 

The pandemic could result in increased costs associated with compliance with new healt and safety measures, which may affect our operations in one or more of the markets in which we operate.

 

The pandemic has resulted, and may continue to result, in fluctuations in equity market prices (including that of our Common Stock), interest rates and credit spreads, which may limit our ability to raise or deploy capital and implement our future plans.

 

 

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Finally, the pandemic could have other negative impacts on our operations, supply chain, transportation networks and customers, which we may not be able to anticipate or respond to effectively.

The future course of the COVID-19 pandemic is difficult to predict.  Although significant progress has been made in the current vaccination campaign in the United States, new virus strains have emerged, some which may present different health risks or be as or more difficult to contain than the original strains that reached the United States in early 2020. We are continuing to monitor the COVID-19 pandemic and its likely effects. The timing of these effects is not expected to be uniform, with some effects having a short-term impact and others likely to be felt for a number of years. In general, the extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic will ultimately impact our business, operations, financial condition and results of operations will depend on numerous factors, which are highly uncertain, rapidly changing and cannot be predicted. These factors include:

 

the duration and scope of the outbreak;

 

the timing of, and progress made in the current vaccination campaign, including the effectiveness of the campaign in dealing with new virus strains;

 

governmental, business and individual actions that have been and may be taken in response to the outbreak;

 

the effect of the outbreak on our customers, suppliers, supply chain, and other business partners;

 

our ability during the outbreak to continue to carry out our manufacturing operations in an efficient manner, while taking measures to protect the health and well-being of our employees;

 

the willingness and ability of our customers to order and pay for our products during and following the outbreak; and

 

the impact of the outbreak on the financial markets and economic activity generally.

The above uncertainties surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic also make it more challenging for our management to estimate the future performance of our business and develop strategies to generate growth or achieve our objectives for fiscal 2022 and future periods.

One key area we continue to closely monitor is the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on our manufacturing operations. Although we are taking precautions to ensure the safety of our employees, we have experienced outbreaks at some of our facilities. In the event we suffer a serious outbreak at one of our manufacturing facilities, we may be forced to suspend operations at such facility until the health conditions improve. Any such reduction in our production capacity could render us unable to continue to produce our construction products or satisfy order placed by our customers.   

INDUSTRY RISK FACTORS

We are affected by the level of demand in the construction industry.

Demand for our construction products and building materials is directly related to the level of activity in the construction industry, which includes residential, commercial and infrastructure construction. While the most recent downturn in residential and commercial construction, which began in calendar 2007, materially affected our business, certain economic fundamentals began improving in calendar 2012, and have generally continued to improve, particularly in recent periods; however, the rate and sustainability of such improvement remains uncertain, and the total impact of COVID-19 is not yet known. Although recent

 

 

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proposals have been made to increase infrastructure spending by the federal and some state and local governments, infrastructure spending continues to be adversely affected by several factors, including the budget constraints currently being experienced by federal, state and local governments. Any decrease in the amount of government funds available for such projects or any decrease in construction activity in general (including any weakness in residential or commercial construction) could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Our business is seasonal in nature, and this causes our quarterly results to vary significantly.

A majority of our business is seasonal with peak revenue and profits occurring primarily in the months of April through November when the weather in our markets is more suitable for construction activity. Quarterly results have varied significantly in the past and are likely to vary significantly in the future. Such variations could have a negative impact on the price of our common stock.

We are subject to the risk of unfavorable weather conditions, particularly during peak construction periods, as well as other unexpected operational difficulties.

Unfavorable weather conditions, such as snow, cold weather, tornados, hurricanes, tropical storms, and heavy or sustained rainfall, can reduce construction activity and adversely affect demand for construction products. In addition, severe weather conditions can impair our ability to continue our operations, and even require the closure of certain of our facilities on a temporary or extended basis.  Weather conditions also have the potential to increase our costs (including the cost of natural gas and electric power), reduce our production, or impede our ability to transport our products in an efficient and cost-effective manner. Similarly, operational difficulties, such as business interruption due to required maintenance, capital improvement projects, or loss of power, can increase our costs and reduce our production. The effect of these risks is more pronounced during peak construction periods, such as months of April through November, during which any reduction in demand or production could adversely affect our sales and operating profits.

We and our customers participate in cyclical industries and regional markets, which are subject to industry downturns.

A majority of our revenue is from customers who are in industries and businesses that are cyclical in nature and subject to changes in general economic conditions. For example, many of our customers operate in the construction industry, which is affected by a variety of factors, such as general economic conditions, changes in interest rates, demographic and population shifts, levels of infrastructure spending, and other factors beyond our control. In addition, since our operations are in a variety of geographic markets, our businesses are subject to differing economic conditions in each such geographic market. Economic downturns in the industries to which we sell our products or localized downturns in the regions where we have operations generally have an adverse effect on demand for our products and negatively affect the collectability of our receivables. In general, any downturns in these industries or regions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Many of our products are commodities, which are subject to significant changes in supply and demand and price fluctuations.

Many of the products sold by us are commodities, and competition among manufacturers is based largely on price. Prices are often subject to material changes in response to relatively minor fluctuations in supply and demand, general economic conditions, and other market conditions beyond our control. Increases in the production capacity of industry participants for products such as gypsum wallboard, or cement or increases in cement imports tend to create an oversupply of such products leading to an imbalance between supply and demand, which can have a negative impact on product prices. Currently, there

 

 

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continues to be significant excess nameplate capacity in the gypsum wallboard industry in the United States. There can be no assurance that prices for products sold by us will not decline in the future or that such declines will not have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

ECONOMIC, POLITICAL, AND LEGAL RISK FACTORS

Our and our customers’ operations are subject to extensive governmental regulation, including environmental laws, which can be costly and burdensome.

Our operations and those of our customers are subject to and affected by federal, state, and local laws and regulations with respect to such matters as land usage, street and highway usage, noise level, and health and safety and environmental matters. In many instances, various certificates, permits, or licenses are required in order for us or our customers to conduct business or carry out construction and related operations. For example, certain of our waste-burning cement kilns are subject to the Standards of Performance for New Sources and Emissions Guidelines for Existing Sources for Commercial/Industrial Solid Waste Incinerators (the CISWI Rule). Although we believe that we are in compliance in all material respects with applicable regulatory requirements, there can be no assurance that we will not incur material costs or liabilities in connection with regulatory requirements or that demand for our products will not be adversely affected by regulatory issues affecting our customers. In addition, future developments, such as the discovery of new facts or conditions, the enactment or adoption of new or stricter laws or regulations, or stricter interpretations of existing laws or regulations, may impose new liabilities on us, require additional investment by us, or prevent us from opening, expanding, or modifying plants or facilities, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations. Further, out of the 16 states where we have operations, 10 states contain at least one “area” that was designated as being in nonattainment for the 2015 ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) (California, Colorado, Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, Nevada, New Mexico, Ohio, Texas, Utah, and Wisconsin). We may be required to meet new control requirements in these states requiring significant capital expenditures for compliance.

Climate change and climate change legislation or regulations may adversely affect our business.

A number of governmental bodies have finalized, proposed, or are contemplating legislative and regulatory changes in response to the potential effects of climate change. Such legislation or regulation has and potentially could include provisions for a “cap and trade” system of allowances and credits or a carbon tax, among other provisions. Any future laws or regulations addressing GHG emissions would likely have a negative impact on our business or results of operations, whether through the imposition of raw material or production limitations, fuel-use, or carbon taxes emission limitations or reductions, or otherwise. Notably, curbing GHG emissions and tackling climate change is a clear priority for President Biden’s administration.

Shortly after taking office in January 2021, President Biden issued a series of executive orders designed to address climate change and to require agencies to review environmental actions taken by the Trump administration, as well as a memorandum to departments and agencies to refrain from proposing or issuing rules until a departmental or agency head appointed or designated by the Biden administration has reviewed and approved the rule. These executive orders may result in the development of additional regulations or changes to existing regulations.

Climate change legislation and regulation concerning GHGs if implemented could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, and liquidity. There is also a potential for climate change legislation and regulation to adversely affect the cost of purchased energy and electricity.

 

 

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Other potential effects of climate change include physical effects such as disruption in production and product distribution as a result of major storm events and shifts in regional weather patterns and intensities. Production and shipment levels for our businesses correlate with general construction activity, most of which occurs outdoors and, as a result, is affected by erratic weather patterns, seasonal changes, and other unusual or unexpected weather-related conditions, which can significantly affect our businesses.

We may become subject to significant cleanup, remediation, reclamation, and other liabilities under applicable environmental laws.

Our operations are subject to state, federal, and local environmental laws and regulations, which impose liability for cleanup or remediation of environmental pollution and hazardous waste arising from past acts. These laws and regulations also require pollution control and prevention, site restoration, reclamation, and operating permits, and/or approvals to conduct certain of our operations or expand or modify our facilities. Certain of our operations may from time to time involve the use of substances that are classified as toxic or hazardous substances within the meaning of these laws and regulations. We are unable to estimate accurately the impact on our business or results of operations of any such law or regulation at this time. Risk of environmental liability (including the incurrence of fines, penalties, other sanctions, or litigation liability) is inherent in the operation of our businesses. As a result, it is possible that environmental liabilities and compliance with environmental regulations could have a material adverse effect on our operations in the future.

Our operations are dependent on our rights and ability to mine our properties and on our having renewed or received the required permits and approvals from governmental authorities and other third parties.

We hold numerous governmental, environmental, mining, and other permits, water rights, and approvals authorizing operations at many of our facilities. A decision by a governmental agency or other third parties to deny or delay issuing a new or renewed permit or approval, or to revoke or substantially modify an existing permit or approval, could have a material adverse effect on our ability to continue operations at the affected facility. Expansion of our existing operations is also predicated on securing the necessary environmental or other permits, water rights, or approvals, which we may not receive in a timely manner or at all.

Title to, and the area of, mineral properties and water rights may also be disputed. Mineral properties sometimes contain claims or transfer histories that examiners cannot verify. A successful claim that we do not have title to one or more of our properties or lack appropriate water rights could cause us to lose any rights to explore, develop, and extract any minerals or utilize water on that property, without compensation for our prior expenditures relating to such property. Our business may suffer a material adverse effect in the event one or more of our properties are determined to have title deficiencies.

In some instances, we have received access rights or easements from third parties, which allow for a more efficient operation than would exist without the access or easement. A third party could take action to suspend the access or easement, and any such action could be materially adverse to our results of operations or financial conditions.

We may incur significant costs in connection with pending and future litigation.

We are, or may become, party to various lawsuits, claims, investigations, and proceedings, including but not limited to personal injury, environmental, antitrust, tax, asbestos, property entitlements and land use, intellectual property, commercial, contract, product liability, health and safety, and employment matters. The outcome of pending or future lawsuits, claims, investigations, or proceedings is often difficult to predict and could be adverse and material in amount. Developments in these proceedings can lead to

 

 

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changes in management’s estimates of liabilities associated with these proceedings, including as a result of rulings or judgments by a judge, agency, or arbitrator, settlements, or changes in applicable law. A future adverse ruling, settlement, or unfavorable development could result in charges that could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and cash flows in a particular period. In addition, the defense of these lawsuits, claims, investigations, and proceedings may divert our management’s attention, and we may incur significant costs in defending these matters.

Our bylaws include a forum selection clause, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us.

Our bylaws provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the sole and exclusive forum for (i) any internal corporate claims within the meaning of the Delaware General Corporation Law (DGCL), (ii) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (iii) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers, or employees to us or to our stockholders, or (iv) any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL, will be a state or federal court located within the State of Delaware in all cases subject to the court’s having personal jurisdiction over the indispensable parties named as defendants. Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in shares of our capital stock is deemed to have notice of and consented to the foregoing provisions. This forum selection provision in our bylaws may limit our stockholders’ ability to pursue claims in a judicial forum of their choosing for disputes with us or our directors, officers, or employees. It is also possible that, notwithstanding the forum selection clause included in our bylaws, a court could rule in specific circumstances that such a provision is inapplicable or unenforceable, which could require that we defend claims in other forums. 

CYBER RISK FACTORS

A cyber-attack or data security breach affecting our information technology systems may negatively affect our businesses, financial condition, and operating results.

We use information technology systems to collect, store, and transmit the data needed to operate our businesses, including our confidential and proprietary information. Although we endeavor to implement and maintain industry-standard security safeguards and policies to prevent unauthorized access or disclosure of such information, we cannot prevent all cyber-attacks or data security breaches. If such an attack or breach occurs, our businesses could be negatively affected, and we could incur additional costs in remediating the attack or breach and suffer reputational harm due to the theft or disclosure of our confidential information.

FINANCIAL AND OPERATIONAL RISK FACTORS

Our Cement business is capital intensive, resulting in significant fixed and semi-fixed costs. Therefore, our earnings are sensitive to changes in volume.

Due to the high levels of fixed capital required to produce cement, the ability of our Cement segment to remain profitable is dependent on achieving and maintaining strong volumes of cement production and sales. Any decreases in volume could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.  In addition, our cement plants require significant capital expenditures to support our business. We believe that our current cash balance, along with our projected internal cash flows and our available financing resources will provide sufficient cash to support our currently anticipated operating and capital needs. However, if we are unable to generate sufficient cash to purchase and maintain the property and machinery necessary to operate our cement business, we may be required to reduce or delay planned capital expenditures or incur additional debt.

 

 

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Any material nonpayment or nonperformance by any of our key customers could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

Any material nonpayment or nonperformance by any of our key customers could have a material adverse effect on our revenue and cash flows. Our contracts with our customers provide for different potential remedies in the event a customer fails to purchase the minimum contracted amount of product in a given period. If we were to pursue legal remedies against a customer that failed to purchase the minimum contracted amount of product under a fixed-volume contract or failed to satisfy the take-or-pay commitment under a take-or-pay contract, we may receive significantly less in a judgment or settlement of any claimed breach than we would have received had the customer fully performed under the contract. In the event of any customer’s breach, we may also choose to renegotiate any disputed contract on less favorable terms (including with respect to price and volume) in order to allow for us to preserve the relationship with that customer.

Volatility and disruption of financial markets could affect access to credit.

Difficult economic conditions can cause a contraction in the availability, and increase the cost, of credit in the marketplace. A number of our customers or suppliers have been and may continue to be adversely affected by unsettled conditions in capital and credit markets, which in some cases have made it more difficult or costly for them to finance their business operations. These unsettled conditions have the potential to reduce the sources of liquidity for the Company and our customers.

 

Our results of operations are subject to significant changes in the cost and availability of fuel, energy and other raw materials.

Major cost components in each of our businesses are the costs of fuel, energy, and raw materials. Significant increases in the costs of fuel, energy, or raw materials, or substantial decreases in their availability, could materially and adversely affect our sales and operating profits. Prices for fuel, energy, or raw materials used in connection with our businesses have in some cases been subject to significant changes in a short period of time for reasons outside our control. For example, prices for fuel and electrical power, which are significant components of the costs associated with our Gypsum Wallboard and Cement businesses, have fluctuated significantly in recent years and may increase in the future. The prices we pay for fuel and electric power are often determined in whole or in part by market-based pricing mechanisms (including spot market pricing mechanisms).  In the past, we have experienced significant and unanticipated price increases due to, among other things, unfavorable weather conditions and governmental responses from the resulting shortages in fuel and power.  Significant price fluctuations also have the potential to give rise to disputes with contractual counterparties, which can be complex and difficult to resolve.  In the event of large or rapid increases in prices, we may not be able to pass the increases through to our customers in full, which would reduce our operating margin

Changes in the cost or availability of raw materials supplied by third parties may adversely affect our operating and financial performance.

We generally maintain our own reserves of limestone, gypsum, aggregates, and other materials that we use to manufacture our products. However, we obtain certain raw materials used to manufacture our products, such as synthetic gypsum and slag granules, from third parties who produce such materials as by-products of industrial processes. While we try to secure our needed supply of such materials through long-term contracts, those contracts may not be sufficient to meet our needs, or we may be unable to renew or replace existing contracts when they expire or are terminated in the future. Should our existing suppliers cease operations or reduce or eliminate production of these by-products, our costs to procure

 

 

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these materials may increase significantly, or we may be obliged to procure alternatives to replace these materials, which may not be available on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Any such developments may adversely affect our operations and financial condition.

Our production facilities may experience unexpected equipment failures, catastrophic events, and scheduled maintenance.

Our manufacturing processes are complex and dependent upon critical pieces of equipment and effective maintenance programs. Such equipment may, on occasion, be out of service as a result of unanticipated events such as fires, explosions, violent weather conditions, or unexpected operational difficulties. We also have periodically scheduled shut-downs to perform maintenance on our facilities. Any significant interruption in production capability may require us to make significant capital expenditures to remedy problems or damage as well as cause us to lose revenue and profits due to lost production time, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. In general, any interruptions in our production processes or limitation in our production capabilities may cause our productivity and results of operations to decline significantly during the affected period.

 

Significant changes in the cost and availability of transportation could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Some of the raw materials used in our manufacturing processes, such as coal or coke, are transported to our facilities by truck or rail. In addition, transportation logistics play an important part in allowing us to supply products to our customers, whether by truck, rail, or barge. For example, we deliver gypsum wallboard to many areas of the United States, and the transportation costs associated with the delivery of our wallboard products represent a significant portion of the variable cost of our Gypsum Wallboard segment. On the other hand, cement is more difficult and costly to transport over long distances, which limits the areas typically served by our cement plants. Significant increases in the cost of fuel or energy can result in material increases in the cost of transportation, which could materially and adversely affect our operating profits. In addition, reductions in the availability of certain modes of transportation, such as rail or trucking, could limit our ability to deliver product and therefore materially and adversely affect our operating profits.

Our debt agreements contain restrictive covenants and require us to meet certain financial ratios and tests, which limit our flexibility and could give rise to a default if we are unable to remain in compliance.

Our Revolving Credit Facility, Senior Unsecured Notes, and Term Loan contain, among other things, covenants that limit our ability to finance future operations or capital needs or to engage in other business activities, including but not limited to our ability to:

incur additional indebtedness;

sell assets or make other fundamental changes;

engage in mergers and acquisitions;

pay dividends and make other restricted payments;

make investments, loans, advances or guarantees;

encumber our assets or those of our restricted subsidiaries;

enter into transactions with our affiliates.

In addition, these agreements require us to meet and maintain certain financial ratios and tests, which may require that we take action to reduce our debt or to act in a manner contrary to our business objectives. Events beyond our control, including changes in general business and economic conditions, may impair our ability to comply with these covenants or meet those financial ratios and tests. A breach of

 

 

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any of these covenants or failure to maintain the required ratios and meet the required tests may result in an event of default under these agreements. This may allow the lenders under these agreements to declare all amounts outstanding to be immediately due and payable, terminate any commitments to extend further credit to us, and pursue other remedies available to them under the applicable agreements. If this occurs, our indebtedness may be accelerated, and we may not be able to refinance the accelerated indebtedness on favorable terms, or at all, or repay the accelerated indebtedness. In general, the occurrence of any event of default under these agreements could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.

We have incurred or may incur substantial indebtedness, which could adversely affect our business, limit our ability to plan for or respond to changes in our business, and reduce our profitability.

In the past, we have incurred significant indebtedness in connection with acquisition transactions or otherwise to fund the growth and development of our business. We may also incur significant indebtedness from time to time in the future for these or other reasons. Our future ability to satisfy our debt obligations is subject, to some extent, to financial, market, competitive, legislative, regulatory, and other factors that are beyond our control. Substantial debt obligations could have negative consequences to our business, and, in particular, could impede, restrict, or delay the implementation of our business strategy or prevent us from entering into transactions that would otherwise benefit our business. For example:

we may be required to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flows from operations to payments on our indebtedness, thereby reducing the availability of our cash flow for other purposes, including business development efforts, capital expenditures, or strategic acquisitions;

we may not be able to generate sufficient cash flow to meet our substantial debt service obligations or to fund our other liquidity needs. If this occurs, we may have to take actions such as selling assets, selling equity, or reducing or delaying capital expenditures, strategic acquisitions, investments and joint ventures, or restructuring our debt;

as a result of the amount of our outstanding indebtedness and the restrictive covenants to which we are or may become subject, if we determine that we require additional financing to fund future working capital, capital investments, or other business activities, we may not be able to obtain such financing on commercially reasonable terms, or at all; and

our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and industry may be limited, thereby placing us at a competitive disadvantage compared with our competitors that have less indebtedness.

Increases in interest rates and inflation could adversely affect our business and demand for our products, which would have a negative effect on our results of operations.

Our business is significantly affected by the movement of interest rates. Interest rates have a direct impact on the level of residential, commercial, and infrastructure construction activity by impacting the cost of borrowed funds to builders. Higher interest rates could result in decreased demand for our products, which would have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations. In addition, increases in interest rates could result in higher interest expense related to borrowings under our borrowing facilities. Inflation can result in higher interest rates. With inflation, the costs of capital increase, and the purchasing power of our cash resources can decline. Current or future efforts by the government to stimulate the economy may increase the risk of significant inflation, which could have a direct and indirect adverse impact on our business and results of operations.


 

 

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Increases in our effective income tax rate may harm our results of operations.

A number of factors may increase our future effective income tax rate, including:

governmental authorities increasing taxes or eliminating deductions, particularly the depletion deduction;

the mix of earnings from depletable versus non-depletable businesses;

the jurisdictions in which earnings are taxed;

the resolution of issues arising from tax audits with various tax authorities;

changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities;

adjustments to estimated taxes upon finalization of various tax returns;

changes in available tax credits;

changes in stock-based compensation;

other changes in tax laws; and

the interpretation of tax laws and/or administrative practices.

Any significant increase in our future effective income tax rate could reduce net earnings and free cash flow for future periods.

Disruption of our business operations due to disputes with organized labor.

Approximately half of our hourly employees are covered by collective bargaining agreements. Disputes with trade unions or the inability to renew our labor agreements may lead to work stoppages or strikes that could disrupt our business operations and lead to higher costs and/or reduced revenue and operating earnings.

OTHER RISK FACTORS

We may pursue acquisitions, joint ventures and other transactions that are intended to complement or expand our businesses. We may not be able to complete proposed transactions, and even if completed, the transactions may involve a number of risks that may result in a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, operating results, and cash flows.

As business conditions warrant and our financial resources permit, we may pursue opportunities to acquire businesses or technologies and to form joint ventures that we believe could complement, enhance, or expand our current businesses or product lines or that might otherwise offer us growth opportunities. We may have difficulty identifying appropriate opportunities, or if we do identify opportunities, we may not be successful in completing transactions for a number of reasons. Any transactions that we are able to identify and complete may involve one or more of a number of risks, including:

the diversion of management’s attention from our existing businesses to integrate the operations and personnel of the acquired business or joint venture;

possible adverse effects on our operating results during the integration process;

failure of the acquired business or joint venture to achieve expected operational, profitability, and investment return objectives;

the incurrence of significant charges, such as impairment of goodwill or intangible assets, asset devaluation, or restructuring charges;

the assumption of unanticipated liabilities and costs for which indemnification is unavailable or inadequate;

unforeseen difficulties encountered in operating in new geographic areas; and

the inability to achieve other intended objectives of the transaction.

 

 

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In addition, we may not be able to successfully or profitably integrate, operate, maintain, and manage our newly acquired operations or their employees. We may not be able to maintain uniform standards, controls, procedures, and policies, which may lead to operational inefficiencies. In addition, future acquisitions may result in dilutive issuances of equity securities or the incurrence of additional indebtedness.

Our Cement business has grown largely through acquisitions, and there is no assurance that we will be able to continue to acquire cement plans to support future growth.

In prior years, we have been able to increase the size and scope of our Cement business in large part through acquisitions of cement plants from third parties.  There are a limited number of companies operating cement plant in the United States, and plants typically become available for purchase only infrequently, such as in connection with a merger, acquisition or corporate reorganization or refinancing.  When cement plants become available for purchase, the purchase process is often highly competitive, which tends to result in relatively high valuations for the plants offered for sale. There can be no assurance that we will be able to continue to identify appropriate acquisition candidates or acquire cement plants at values that we regard as reasonable.

We may pursue new business opportunities and, if we do so, these opportunities will be subject to the risks typically associated with the early stages of business development or product line expansion.

We may from time to time pursue opportunities which are natural extensions of our existing core businesses and which allow us to leverage our core competencies, existing infrastructure, and customer relationships. Our likelihood of success in pursuing and realizing these opportunities must be considered in light of the expenses, difficulties, and delays frequently encountered in connection with the early phases of business development or product line expansion, including the difficulties involved in obtaining permits; planning and constructing new facilities; transporting and storing products; establishing, maintaining, or expanding customer relationships; as well as navigating the regulatory environment in which we operate. There can be no assurance that we will be successful in the pursuit and realization of these opportunities.

This report includes various forward-looking statements, which are not facts or guarantees of future performance and which are subject to significant risks and uncertainties.

This report and other materials we have filed or will file with the SEC, as well as information included in oral statements or other written statements made or to be made by us contain or may contain forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, Section 21E of the Exchange Act of 1934, and the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. You can identify these statements by the fact that they do not relate to matters of a strictly factual or historical nature and generally discuss or relate to forecasts, estimates, or other expectations regarding future events. Generally, the words “believe,” “expect,” “intend,” “estimate,” “anticipate,” “project,” “may,” “can,” “could,” “might,” “will,” and similar expressions identify forward-looking statements, including statements related to expected operating and performing results, planned transactions, plans, and objectives of management, future developments, or conditions in the industries in which we participate, including future prices for our products, audits, and legal proceedings to which we are a party, and other trends, developments, and uncertainties that may affect our business in the future.

Forward-looking statements are not historical facts or guarantees of future performance but instead represent only our beliefs at the time the statements were made regarding future events, which are subject to significant risks, uncertainties, and other factors, many of which are outside of our control. Any or all of the forward-looking statements made by us may turn out to be materially inaccurate. This can

 

 

30


 

occur as a result of incorrect assumptions, changes in facts and circumstances, or the effects of known risks and uncertainties. Many of the risks and uncertainties mentioned in this report or other reports filed by us with the SEC, including those discussed in the risk factor section of this report, will be important in determining whether these forward-looking statements prove to be accurate. Consequently, neither our stockholders nor any other person should place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements and should recognize that actual results may differ materially from those that may be anticipated by us.

All forward-looking statements made in this report are made as of the date hereof, and the risk that actual results will differ materially from expectations expressed in this report will increase with the passage of time. We undertake no obligation, and disclaim any duty, to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events, changes in our expectations, or otherwise.

 

 

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ITEM 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

There are no unresolved Staff comments.

ITEM 2. Properties

Our operating facilities span the U.S. They include cement plants, quarries, and related facilities; concrete and aggregate plants and quarries; gypsum wallboard plants; and a recycled paperboard mill; as well as distribution terminals and our headquarters in Dallas. All of our facilities are owned, with the exception of our headquarters in Dallas, which is leased through May 2029 and certain terminals, as discussed on page 9. None of our facilities are pledged as security for any debts. Please see the Industry Segment Information section on pages 5-19 for more information about the location of our facilities.

The following map shows the locations of our operating facilities at March 31, 2021, by type of facility.

 

 


 

 

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From time to time we have been and may in the future become involved in litigation or other legal proceedings in the ordinary course of our business activities or in connection with transactions or activities undertaken by us, including claims related to worker safety, worker health, environmental matters, land use rights, taxes and permits.  While the outcome of these proceedings cannot be predicted with certainty, in the opinion of management (based on currently available facts), we do not believe that the ultimate outcome of any currently pending legal proceeding will have a material effect on our consolidated financial condition, results of operations or liquidity.

 For additional information regarding claims and other contingent liabilities to which we may be subject, see Footnote (K) in the Audited Consolidated Financial Statements.

ITEM 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

Information concerning mine safety violations or other regulatory matters required by Section 1503(a) of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act and Item 104 of Regulation S-K is included in Exhibit 95 to this Annual Report on Form 10-K.


 

 

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PART II

ITEM 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Stock Prices and Dividends

As of May 18, 2021, there were approximately 1,200 holders of record of our Common Stock which trades on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol EXP.

SHARE REPURCHASES

On April 18, 2019, the Board of Directors authorized us to repurchase an additional 10,000,000 shares. Including this latest authorization, our Board of Directors has approved the repurchase in the open market of a cumulative total of 48,393,305 shares of our Common Stock since we became publicly held in April 1994.

During fiscal years 2020 and 2019, we repurchased 3,574,109 and 3,309,670 shares, respectively, at average prices of $87.82 and $82.18, respectively. We did not repurchase any shares in fiscal 2021. We have repurchased approximately 41.1 million shares from April 1994 through March 31, 2021.

Share repurchases may be made from time to time in the open market or in privately negotiated transactions. The timing and amount of any repurchases of shares will be determined by the Company’s management, based on its evaluation of market and economic conditions and other factors. In some cases, repurchases may be made pursuant to plans, programs, or directions established occasionally by the Company’s management, including plans to comply with the safe harbor provided by Rule 10b5-1.

We did not have any sales of unregistered equity securities during fiscal 2021.

The Equity Compensation Plan information set forth in Part III, Item 12 of this Form 10-K is hereby incorporated by reference into this Part II, Item 5.


 

 

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PERFORMANCE GRAPH

The following performance graph and related information shall not be deemed soliciting material or to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, nor shall such information be incorporated by reference into any future filing under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, each as amended, except to the extent that the Company specifically incorporates it by reference into such filing.

The graph below compares the cumulative 5-year total return to holders of Eagle Materials Inc. common stock with the cumulative total returns of the Russell 1000 index and the Dow Jones US Building Materials & Fixtures index. The graph assumes that the value of the investment (including the reinvestment of dividends) in the Company’s common stock and in each of the indices was $100 on March 31, 2016, and tracks it through March 31, 2021.

 

 

 

3/16

 

 

3/17

 

 

3/18

 

 

3/19

 

 

3/20

 

 

3/21

 

Eagle Materials Inc.

 

 

100.00

 

 

 

139.25

 

 

 

148.30

 

 

 

121.90

 

 

 

84.86

 

 

 

195.54

 

Russell 1000

 

 

100.00

 

 

 

117.43

 

 

 

133.84

 

 

 

146.29

 

 

 

134.55

 

 

 

216.07

 

Dow Jones US Building Materials & Fixtures

 

 

100.00

 

 

 

115.17

 

 

 

121.77

 

 

 

119.99

 

 

 

110.34

 

 

 

214.37

 

 

The stock price performance included in this graph is not necessarily indicative of future stock price performance.

 

 

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ITEM 6. Selected Financial Data

SEC Release No. 33-10890 eliminated the requirement of selected financial data previously required by Item 301 of Regulation S-K.

ITEM 7.  Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

executive summary

We are a leading supplier of heavy construction materials and light building materials in the United States. Our primary products are commodities that are essential in commercial and residential construction; public construction projects; and projects to build, expand, and repair roads and highways. Demand for our products is generally cyclical and seasonal, depending on economic and geographic conditions. We distribute our products throughout most of the United States, except the Northeast, which provides us with regional economic diversification. However, general economic downturns or localized downturns in the regions where we have operations may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

On September 18, 2020, we sold our Oil and Gas Proppants business, which had previously been reported as a separate operating segment, for a purchase price of $2.0 million, which was paid in Smart Sand common stock. For financial reporting purposes, the sale resulted in a gain of approximately $9.2 million. Because the sale of the Oil and Gas Proppants business was determined to meet the accounting criteria for discontinued operations, this segment is no longer separately reported in our reportable segment footnote for any of the periods presented. See Footnotes (C) and (I) in the Audited Consolidated Financial Statements for more information about the sale of the Oil and Gas Proppants business.

Our current businesses are organized into two sectors: Heavy Materials, which includes the Cement and Concrete and Aggregates segments; and Light Materials, which includes the Gypsum Wallboard and Recycled Paperboard segments. Financial results and other information for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, are presented on a consolidated basis and by these business segments – Cement, Concrete and Aggregates, Gypsum Wallboard, and Recycled Paperboard.

We conduct one of our cement operations through a joint venture, Texas Lehigh Cement Company LP, which is located in Buda, Texas (the Joint Venture). We own a 50% interest in the Joint Venture and account for our interest under the equity method of accounting. We proportionately consolidate our 50% share of the Joint Venture’s Revenue and Operating Earnings in the presentation of our Cement segment, which is the way management organizes the segments within the Company for making operating decisions and assessing performance.

All our business activities are conducted in the United States. These activities include the mining of limestone for the manufacture, production, distribution, and sale of portland cement (a basic construction material that is the essential binding ingredient in concrete); the grinding and sale of slag; the mining of gypsum for the manufacture and sale of gypsum wallboard; the manufacture and sale of recycled paperboard to the gypsum wallboard industry and other paperboard converters; the sale of readymix concrete; and the mining and sale of aggregates (crushed stone, sand, and gravel).

On August 2, 2019, we acquired the assets of a readymix concrete and aggregates business in northern Nevada (the ConAgg Acquisition). The purchase price (Purchase Price) of the ConAgg Acquisition was approximately $30.4 million. The Purchase Price and expenses incurred in connection with the ConAgg Acquisition were funded through operating cash flows and borrowings under our Revolving Credit Facility.

 

 

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The ConAgg Acquisition’s assets and operating results are included in our Concrete and Aggregates segment reporting from August 2, 2019 through March 31, 2020, and for all of fiscal 2021.

On March 6, 2020, we completed the acquisition (the Kosmos Acquisition) of the assets of Kosmos Cement Company (a joint venture between CEMEX S.A.B. de C.V. and Buzzi Unicem S.p.A.) (Kosmos), which included (i) a cement plant located in Louisville, Kentucky, (ii) a limestone quarry located in Battletown, Kentucky, (iii) cement distribution terminals located in Indianapolis, Indiana; Cincinnati, Ohio; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Charleston, West Virginia; Ceredo, West Virginia; Mt. Vernon, Indiana; and Lexington, Kentucky, and (iv) certain other properties and assets used by Kosmos in connection with the foregoing (collectively, the Kosmos Business) for a purchase price of approximately $669 million. We also assumed certain liabilities and obligations of Kosmos relating to the Kosmos Business, including contractual obligations, reclamation obligations, and various other liabilities and obligations arising out of or relating to the Kosmos Business after the closing of the transaction. We funded the payment of the purchase price and expenses incurred in connection with the transaction through a combination of cash on hand and a syndicated term loan facility. The Kosmos Business’ assets and operating results are included in our Cement segment reporting from March 6, 2020 through March 31, 2020, and for all of fiscal 2021.

On April 17, 2020, we sold our Western Aggregates LLC (Western) and Mathews Readymix LLC (Mathews) businesses for an aggregate purchase price of $93.5 million, resulting in a gain of $52.0 million. Western and Mathews were part of our Concrete and Aggregates operating segment, and their results of operations were included in fiscal 2020 and 2019, and from April 1, 2020 through April 17, 2020.

MARKET CONDITIONS AND OUTLOOK

Our financial results in fiscal 2021 were not materially affected by the extraordinary and wide-ranging actions taken by international, federal, state, and local public health and governmental authorities to contain and combat the spread of COVID-19. Nevertheless, the future course of the COVID-19 pandemic is difficult to predict, and the extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic will ultimately impact our business, operations, financial condition and results of operations will depend on numerous factors, which are highly uncertain, rapidly changing and cannot be predicted. 

Our fiscal 2021 results were strong, with increased operating earnings in all segments except Recycled Paperboard. Our end markets remained resilient despite the uncertainty related to COVID-19. Our regional construction markets continued to generally outperform the national average, and sales volume in both major business lines remained strong – our Gypsum Wallboard shipments were up 6%, and our organic Cement sales volume increased 1%.  

We are well positioned to manage our cost structure and meet our customers’ needs during the upcoming fiscal year.  Our substantial raw material reserves support our low-cost producer position and the integration of the Kosmos Acquisition during fiscal 2021 expanded our Cement sales footprint in the central part of the United States. We expect our cost of freight will increase in fiscal 2022, as the continued demand for construction and construction products increases.

On the demand side, the passage of the latest stimulus bill in March 2021 provided states with additional funds to compensate for lower tax collections due to COVID-related shutdowns, and the new administration’s proposed new infrastructure program, if passed, will increase investment in roads, bridges and other infrastructure throughout the country.

Our integrated cement sales network stretches across the U.S. heartland and is operating at high utilization levels; therefore, organic cement sales volume growth will be limited. The PCA is estimating cement consumption will increase in calendar 2021 over 2020 by approximately 2%. In addition to

 

 

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weather, cement and concrete and aggregates markets are affected by infrastructure spending, residential construction, and industrial construction activity.

Our primary Gypsum Wallboard sales network stretches across the southern half of the United States, consistent with our facility network. Wallboard demand is heavily influenced by new residential housing construction, as well as repair and remodeling activity. Residential housing starts increased 7% in calendar 2020 from 2019, and are expected to remain strong throughout the remainder of calendar 2021.

Our Recycled Paperboard business primarily sells paper into the gypsum wallboard market, and demand for paper generally follows the demand for gypsum wallboard. The primary raw material used to produce paperboard is OCC. We expect OCC prices to increase during the fiscal first quarter of 2022, then remain consistent for the rest of the fiscal year. Additionally, the PSO has requested an increase in electric rates that, if approved, would significantly increase our power costs in fiscal 2022. Although current gypsum liner customer contracts include price escalators that partially offset and compensate for changes in raw material fiber prices, these increases likely will adversely affect our Gypsum Wallboard operations by increasing the cost of paper.

During February 2021, Winter Storm Uri adversely affected the operations of several of our cement plants, as well as our Gypsum Wallboard and Recycled Paperboard businesses. The impact of the storm increased costs, principally for natural gas and electric power, in the affected businesses during the fourth quarter of fiscal 2021. In addition, in regions affected by the storm, construction activities experienced significant reductions for the duration of the storm. We are engaged in discussions with contractual counterparties regarding the responsibility for certain charges and obligations arising as a result of the storm, and therefore it is not possible at the present time to make a final determination of the storm’s impact on our financial results, or potential impact on costs in future periods.

Results of Operations

Fiscal Year 2021 Compared with Fiscal Year 2020

 

 

 

For the Years Ended March 31,